Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Illinois study seeking biomarkers of canine diabetes, other diseases

07.10.2003


Even as the genetic blueprint for Shadow the poodle was being completed in Maryland, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign had been engaged in a long-term study that they hope will add functional gene information to the dog genome as well as benefit both canine and human health.



The still-in-progress Illinois study, in which researchers are measuring the effects of diet on gene expression in both weanling and geriatric dogs, is described in a paper in the October issue of the Journal of Nutrition. The scientists use their study as an example of how the use of emerging molecular tools, in general, will unlock the functional aspects of the genes being mapped in a variety of genomes.

"Genome sequencing allows us to understand health across animals," said Lawrence B. Schook, a professor of animal sciences and veterinary pathobiology at Illinois. "Dogs, like humans, get diseases associated with lifestyles. Thus not exercising and over-eating can result in obesity and diabetes. Information about human diseases can be used to treat dogs, and understanding dog diseases can be used to treat humans."


The dog-human bond goes deeper than mutual admiration. In a paper published last month in Science, researchers at the Institute for Genomic Research in Maryland scientists reported that their genome map of Shadow reveals 18,473 genes that correspond to the 24,567 annotated human genes. They also noted that the dog’s genome had more genetic similarities with humans than does the mouse -- the most-often used mammal for human health studies.

Schook and colleagues say in their paper that the cat-genome map available to date is even more similar to humans genetically than the dog. To date, Schook said, 263 feline and 451 canine genetic diseases have been identified.

Causes for diseases associated with a single gene can be uncovered with current biological techniques, Schook said, but finding the source of diseases associated with multiple genes "is a much more daunting task."

The emergence of mammal genomes provides fundamental gene-placement information, but now researchers are able to pursue functional genomics to unlock the mysteries of RNA and protein expression. Such research, Schook and colleagues write, will enhance our knowledge of metabolism and improve companion animal nutrition and health.

The dog, they say, "may be a very useful model, as many of the most common diseases of purebred dogs are also major health concerns in humans." They cite arthritis, cancer, deafness, heart disease, blindness, epilepsy and chronic metabolic diseases.

In the Illinois study, a diet of mostly high-quality animal-based ingredients is being compared with a mainly plant-based diet. Researchers are analyzing ribonucleic acid (RNA) samples to generate gene expression profiles of some 384 genes associated with metabolism and immune function. They also are monitoring digestion, fetal microbes and concentrations of fermented end products to measure the effects of dietary changes.

Illinois scientists hope the project will identify biomarkers that can predict diabetes, a disease that is appearing among the 40 percent of aging overweight dogs and cats in the United States, and other medical issues.

The general study of metabolic profiles of cells, tissues and organisms is designed to identify molecular markers that reflect nutritional and/or health status. Eventually, Schook said, such studies could result in animal feed that includes functional ingredients to help prevent and treat diseases in general or to target breed-specific genetic problems.

Schook’s collaborators are George Fahey, professor of animal sciences, and Kelly Swanson, a postdoctoral fellow in animal sciences. Pyxis Genomics of Chicago supports their research. Schook is a member of the board of directors of the privately held company that focuses on genetic research on natural disease resistance in food animals, preventive medicine for dogs and cats, food safety and security, and human therapeutics.

Jim Barlow | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uiuc.edu/

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Europe’s Demographic Future. Where the Regions Are Heading after a Decade of Crises
10.08.2017 | Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung

nachricht Scientists reveal source of human heartbeat in 3-D
07.08.2017 | University of Manchester

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A Map of the Cell’s Power Station

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers printed graphene-like materials with inkjet

18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>