Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Illinois study seeking biomarkers of canine diabetes, other diseases

07.10.2003


Even as the genetic blueprint for Shadow the poodle was being completed in Maryland, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign had been engaged in a long-term study that they hope will add functional gene information to the dog genome as well as benefit both canine and human health.



The still-in-progress Illinois study, in which researchers are measuring the effects of diet on gene expression in both weanling and geriatric dogs, is described in a paper in the October issue of the Journal of Nutrition. The scientists use their study as an example of how the use of emerging molecular tools, in general, will unlock the functional aspects of the genes being mapped in a variety of genomes.

"Genome sequencing allows us to understand health across animals," said Lawrence B. Schook, a professor of animal sciences and veterinary pathobiology at Illinois. "Dogs, like humans, get diseases associated with lifestyles. Thus not exercising and over-eating can result in obesity and diabetes. Information about human diseases can be used to treat dogs, and understanding dog diseases can be used to treat humans."


The dog-human bond goes deeper than mutual admiration. In a paper published last month in Science, researchers at the Institute for Genomic Research in Maryland scientists reported that their genome map of Shadow reveals 18,473 genes that correspond to the 24,567 annotated human genes. They also noted that the dog’s genome had more genetic similarities with humans than does the mouse -- the most-often used mammal for human health studies.

Schook and colleagues say in their paper that the cat-genome map available to date is even more similar to humans genetically than the dog. To date, Schook said, 263 feline and 451 canine genetic diseases have been identified.

Causes for diseases associated with a single gene can be uncovered with current biological techniques, Schook said, but finding the source of diseases associated with multiple genes "is a much more daunting task."

The emergence of mammal genomes provides fundamental gene-placement information, but now researchers are able to pursue functional genomics to unlock the mysteries of RNA and protein expression. Such research, Schook and colleagues write, will enhance our knowledge of metabolism and improve companion animal nutrition and health.

The dog, they say, "may be a very useful model, as many of the most common diseases of purebred dogs are also major health concerns in humans." They cite arthritis, cancer, deafness, heart disease, blindness, epilepsy and chronic metabolic diseases.

In the Illinois study, a diet of mostly high-quality animal-based ingredients is being compared with a mainly plant-based diet. Researchers are analyzing ribonucleic acid (RNA) samples to generate gene expression profiles of some 384 genes associated with metabolism and immune function. They also are monitoring digestion, fetal microbes and concentrations of fermented end products to measure the effects of dietary changes.

Illinois scientists hope the project will identify biomarkers that can predict diabetes, a disease that is appearing among the 40 percent of aging overweight dogs and cats in the United States, and other medical issues.

The general study of metabolic profiles of cells, tissues and organisms is designed to identify molecular markers that reflect nutritional and/or health status. Eventually, Schook said, such studies could result in animal feed that includes functional ingredients to help prevent and treat diseases in general or to target breed-specific genetic problems.

Schook’s collaborators are George Fahey, professor of animal sciences, and Kelly Swanson, a postdoctoral fellow in animal sciences. Pyxis Genomics of Chicago supports their research. Schook is a member of the board of directors of the privately held company that focuses on genetic research on natural disease resistance in food animals, preventive medicine for dogs and cats, food safety and security, and human therapeutics.

Jim Barlow | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uiuc.edu/

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Diagnoses: When Are Several Opinions Better Than One?
19.07.2016 | Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung

nachricht High in calories and low in nutrients when adolescents share pictures of food online
07.04.2016 | University of Gothenburg

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First quantum photonic circuit with electrically driven light source

Optical quantum computers can revolutionize computer technology. A team of researchers led by scientists from Münster University and KIT now succeeded in putting a quantum optical experimental set-up onto a chip. In doing so, they have met one of the requirements for making it possible to use photonic circuits for optical quantum computers.

Optical quantum computers are what people are pinning their hopes on for tomorrow’s computer technology – whether for tap-proof data encryption, ultrafast...

Im Focus: OLED microdisplays in data glasses for improved human-machine interaction

The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.

“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...

Im Focus: Artificial Intelligence Helps in the Discovery of New Materials

With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...

Im Focus: Complex hardmetal tools out of the 3D printer

For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.

Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...

Im Focus: Launch of New Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing

At AKL’16, the International Laser Technology Congress held in May this year, interest in the topic of process control was greater than expected. Appropriately, the event was also used to launch the Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing. The group provides a forum for representatives from industry and research to initiate pre-competitive projects and discuss issues such as standards, potential cost savings and feasibility.

In the age of industry 4.0, laser technology is firmly established within manufacturing. A wide variety of laser techniques – from USP ablation and additive...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Laser use for neurosurgery and biofabrication - LaserForum 2016 focuses on medical technology

27.09.2016 | Event News

Experts from industry and academia discuss the future mobile telecommunications standard 5G

23.09.2016 | Event News

ICPE in Graz for the seventh time

20.09.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

New switch decides between genome repair and death of cells

27.09.2016 | Life Sciences

Nanotechnology for energy materials: Electrodes like leaf veins

27.09.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

‘Missing link’ found in the development of bioelectronic medicines

27.09.2016 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>