Leading public-health scientists highlight in a study in this week’s issue of THE LANCET how confronting major risk factors that lead to poor health could have a substantial effect in reducing premature deaths and morbidity globally-especially in the poorest areas of the world. This preventive approach would also reduce the prevailing health inequalities that exist between the world’s richest and poorest nations.
Majid Ezzati from the Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA, Christopher Murray from WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, and colleagues estimate the potential health benefits from the removal of major risk factors that are associated with the main causes of death and disability worldwide. The joint contribution of the main 20 risk factors affecting global health (including malnutrition, poor water and sanitation, tobacco and alcohol use, and elevated blood cholesterol) were assessed in 14 regions of the world divided into three categories: high mortality developing regions; lower mortality developing regions; and economically developed regions.
Around half (47%) of premature deaths worldwide and around 40% of total disease burden in 2000 resulted from the joint effects of the main risk factors assessed. The investigators used comprehensive reviews of data on risk-factor levels and epidemiological studies in their estimates. They reported their results in terms of gain in health life expectancy (HALE) which is a combined measure of premature mortality and non-fatal diseases. Elimination of these 20 risk factors would have the following effects in reducing disease: diarrhoea (over 90%), lower respiratory infections (around 60%), lung cancer (72%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (60%), ischaemic heart disease (around 85%), and stroke (just under 75%). Removal of these risks would have increased global healthy life expectancy by over nine years from 56 to 65 years (ranging from 4•4 years (6%) in the developed countries of the western Pacific to 16•1 years (43%) in parts of sub-Saharan Africa).
Richard Lane | alfa
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Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of light metals.
Scientists at the University of Stuttgart have now developed two new process variants that will considerably expand the areas of application for friction stir welding.
Technologie-Lizenz-Büro (TLB) GmbH supports the University of Stuttgart in patenting and marketing its innovations.
Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of...
Optical quantum computers can revolutionize computer technology. A team of researchers led by scientists from Münster University and KIT now succeeded in putting a quantum optical experimental set-up onto a chip. In doing so, they have met one of the requirements for making it possible to use photonic circuits for optical quantum computers.
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The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.
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With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
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For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.
Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...
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