Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Factors Affecting Future Health and Mortality

10.04.2008
A study by researchers from the University of the Philippines Diliman and the Nihon University in Tokyo, Japan, shows that age, gender, place of residence, and health status/behavior indicators significantly affect future health and mortality of older people, ages 50 and above, in the Philippines.

A study conducted by Grace T. Cruz and Josefina N. Natividad of the Population Institute, University of the Philippines Diliman and Yasuhiko Saito of the Advanced Research Institute for the Science and Humanities, Nihon University, Tokyo, Japan examines the future lifetime and functional health transition patterns, or the changes in the health-related quality of life among older people in the Philippines.

Using the data on people ages 50 and above from the areas of Metro Manila (NCR) (urban area) and Leyte (rural area), the researchers were able to determine and analyze the factors that significantly affect the future health and mortality of older people. The data are based on the results of the 1996 Philippine Elderly Survey (PES) and its follow-up study, the 2000 Philippine Follow-up Survey on the Elderly.

The active life expectancy (ALE) determines the functional ability and expected future lifetime of a person given a health state. The analysis of the survey results and computation of the ALE show that age, gender, place of residence, and health status/behavior indicators (i.e., self-assessed health, drinking behavior, exercise) significantly affect future health and mortality, while education has no effect. There are also significant transitions in health status from the 1996 PES to the 2000 Follow-up Survey.

A high rate of recovery from inactive status has been noted in the country, particularly in females. This result suggests that aging does not imply progressive deterioration and that recovery from disability is a significant factor in estimating functional health transition. Findings also show that males have a higher probability of mortality than females. However, a great portion of the remaining life of older females is more likely spent in an inactive state.

The initial health status, which is the health state reported in the 1996 survey, significantly influences the future health status of a person, whether active, inactive or dead. Among the older people who were initially active, 57 percent remained active, 16 percent shifted to inactive state, and 13 percent died.

On the other hand, among those who were initially inactive, 31 percent remained inactive, 25 percent became active, and 40 percent died. These figures clearly show that the initially inactive are more likely to experience mortality and health change over time than the initially active. For some though the initial health status remains the same.

Other results show that urban residents are more likely to experience mortality and health decline than rural residents. This analysis suggests that urbanization may have adverse effects on older people. A possible reason cited by the study for the increased proportion of disability in the urban area is the concentration of health care services in the city, a situation which causes the migration of older people with disability from the rural area to the urban.

Based on the data analysis on drinkers and self-assessed health, self-assessed health has been confirmed to be a significant predictor for mortality. Drinkers in 1996 were found to be less likely to die compared to non-drinkers; this is quite unexpected if we consider the harmful effects of excessive alcohol in the body.

However, researchers explain that this result is due to the inclusion in the non-drinkers category of a large proportion of older people who have stopped drinking because of health reasons. With the negative effects of drinking already existent, the likelihood of mortality is higher among the non-drinkers.

In terms of self-assessed health, those with positive self-assessment of health are as expected less likely to experience mortality. According to the research, physical exercise also helps in avoiding health decline. Those who are initially active and were reported to have exercised regularly are five percent less likely to become inactive in the follow-up survey.

The researchers were able to arrive at the conclusion that the population of older people are expected to increase in the future. However, along with the increase in population is the corresponding increase in the expected number of disabilities mostly among females. This finding reveals that prolonging the life of older people may mean prolonging an unhealthy life.

The research cites this quotation: “The expected declines in functional health (specifically, in the ability to perform normal, everyday activities of daily living) can result in significant restrictions on lifestyles, modifications in recreational and leisure activities, social isolation, poor nutrition and overall decrease in the quality of life (Kiyak and Borson, 1992; Verbrugge and Jette, 1994).”

The study thus suggests that future policies should be able to respond to the expected increase in the number of older people in the coming years in terms of provision of health services, health insurance and social security. The insignificant effect of education to health transitions is quite unexpected. The researchers therefore recommend that further study and verification of results be done on other samples.

| ResearchSEA
Further information:
http://www.ovcrd.upd.edu.ph
http://www.researchsea.com

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Smart Data Transformation – Surfing the Big Wave
02.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Informationstechnik FIT

nachricht Climate change could outpace EPA Lake Champlain protections
18.11.2016 | University of Vermont

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

IHP presents the fastest silicon-based transistor in the world

05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

InLight study: insights into chemical processes using light

05.12.2016 | Materials Sciences

High-precision magnetic field sensing

05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>