A study conducted by Grace T. Cruz and Josefina N. Natividad of the Population Institute, University of the Philippines Diliman and Yasuhiko Saito of the Advanced Research Institute for the Science and Humanities, Nihon University, Tokyo, Japan examines the future lifetime and functional health transition patterns, or the changes in the health-related quality of life among older people in the Philippines.
Using the data on people ages 50 and above from the areas of Metro Manila (NCR) (urban area) and Leyte (rural area), the researchers were able to determine and analyze the factors that significantly affect the future health and mortality of older people. The data are based on the results of the 1996 Philippine Elderly Survey (PES) and its follow-up study, the 2000 Philippine Follow-up Survey on the Elderly.
The active life expectancy (ALE) determines the functional ability and expected future lifetime of a person given a health state. The analysis of the survey results and computation of the ALE show that age, gender, place of residence, and health status/behavior indicators (i.e., self-assessed health, drinking behavior, exercise) significantly affect future health and mortality, while education has no effect. There are also significant transitions in health status from the 1996 PES to the 2000 Follow-up Survey.
A high rate of recovery from inactive status has been noted in the country, particularly in females. This result suggests that aging does not imply progressive deterioration and that recovery from disability is a significant factor in estimating functional health transition. Findings also show that males have a higher probability of mortality than females. However, a great portion of the remaining life of older females is more likely spent in an inactive state.
The initial health status, which is the health state reported in the 1996 survey, significantly influences the future health status of a person, whether active, inactive or dead. Among the older people who were initially active, 57 percent remained active, 16 percent shifted to inactive state, and 13 percent died.
On the other hand, among those who were initially inactive, 31 percent remained inactive, 25 percent became active, and 40 percent died. These figures clearly show that the initially inactive are more likely to experience mortality and health change over time than the initially active. For some though the initial health status remains the same.
Other results show that urban residents are more likely to experience mortality and health decline than rural residents. This analysis suggests that urbanization may have adverse effects on older people. A possible reason cited by the study for the increased proportion of disability in the urban area is the concentration of health care services in the city, a situation which causes the migration of older people with disability from the rural area to the urban.
Based on the data analysis on drinkers and self-assessed health, self-assessed health has been confirmed to be a significant predictor for mortality. Drinkers in 1996 were found to be less likely to die compared to non-drinkers; this is quite unexpected if we consider the harmful effects of excessive alcohol in the body.
However, researchers explain that this result is due to the inclusion in the non-drinkers category of a large proportion of older people who have stopped drinking because of health reasons. With the negative effects of drinking already existent, the likelihood of mortality is higher among the non-drinkers.
In terms of self-assessed health, those with positive self-assessment of health are as expected less likely to experience mortality. According to the research, physical exercise also helps in avoiding health decline. Those who are initially active and were reported to have exercised regularly are five percent less likely to become inactive in the follow-up survey.
The researchers were able to arrive at the conclusion that the population of older people are expected to increase in the future. However, along with the increase in population is the corresponding increase in the expected number of disabilities mostly among females. This finding reveals that prolonging the life of older people may mean prolonging an unhealthy life.
The research cites this quotation: “The expected declines in functional health (specifically, in the ability to perform normal, everyday activities of daily living) can result in significant restrictions on lifestyles, modifications in recreational and leisure activities, social isolation, poor nutrition and overall decrease in the quality of life (Kiyak and Borson, 1992; Verbrugge and Jette, 1994).”
The study thus suggests that future policies should be able to respond to the expected increase in the number of older people in the coming years in terms of provision of health services, health insurance and social security. The insignificant effect of education to health transitions is quite unexpected. The researchers therefore recommend that further study and verification of results be done on other samples.
New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)
Reusable carbon nanotubes could be the water filter of the future, says RIT study
30.03.2017 | Rochester Institute of Technology
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
03.04.2017 | Event News
26.04.2017 | Earth Sciences
26.04.2017 | Health and Medicine
25.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy