Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Study maps life in extreme environments

03.01.2008
A team of biologists have developed a model mapping the control circuit governing a whole free living organism. This is an important milestone for the new field of systems biology and will allow the researchers to model how the organism adapts over time in response to its environment.

This study marks the first time researchers have accurately predicted a cell’s dynamics at the genome scale (for most of the thousands of components in the cell). The findings, which are based on a study of Halobacterium salinarum, a free-living microbe that lives in hyper-extreme environments, appear in the latest issue of the journal Cell.

The study’s lead authors are New York University Assistant Biology Professor Richard Bonneau, who holds appointments at NYU’s Center for Genomics & Systems Biology and the university’s Courant Institute for Mathematical Sciences, and Nitin Baliga of the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, WA. The study also included researchers at the University of Maryland, Vanderbilt University, and the University of Washington.

The researchers focused on a little studied organism that can survive high salt, radiation, and other stresses that would be deadly to most other organisms. By focusing on such an organism the researchers were able to show definitively that they could understand and model the circuit controlling the cell directly from experiments designed to measure all genes in the genome simultaneously. These are called systems-biology experiments. This scholarship is part of a new scientific field, systems biology, which examines how genes influence each other via extremely large networks of interaction and how these networks respond to stimuli, adapting over time to new environments and cell states. The field has blossomed over the past 10 years, spurred by successful mapping of genomic systems.

By a combination of experimental and algorithmic advances studies in this area have shown that scientific knowledge can go from genome to a functional and dynamical draft-model of the whole organism in a relatively short time. Important previous studies in this area identified cell components (genome sequencing) and how cell components are connected. But the study in Cell went beyond previous scholarship and accurately modeled how Halobacterium, an important organism in high-salt environments such as the Dead Sea or Utah’s Great Salt Lake, functioned over time and responded to changing environmental conditions. The researchers were, for the first time, able to predict how over 80 percent of the total genome (several thousand genes) responded to stimuli over time, dynamically rearranging the cell’s makeup to meet environmental stresses.

“This organism is amazingly versatile and tolerates lots of different extreme environmental stresses,” said Bonneau. “It does this by making decisions and dynamically changing the levels of genes and proteins; if it makes incorrect decisions it dies. Our model shows how these decisions get made, how the bug responds.”

“This is also a good model to explain how, in general, cells make stable decisions as they move through time scales,” added Bonneau, who is part of an NYU research group that handled the analysis of this genome. “If you want to understand how cells respond to their environments, the model offers a clearer window than previously existed for this domain of life.”

The collaboration between Baliga’s and Bonneau’s research groups represents a type of partnership becoming more essential to biological and biomedical research: biologists and computer scientists teaming up to design experiments and analysis that synergize to decipher living systems, resulting in ever more complex and accurate models of the cell. The result is more comprehensive, reaching genome-scale levels, more accurate, and more relevant to biologists and biomedical researchers hoping to understand the whole system.

Bonneau added that by understanding how biological systems function, researchers can then turn their attention to engineering the biosynthesis of biofuels and pharmaceuticals.

“We are now gearing up to try this sort of analysis on several other organisms,” he noted. “In addition, because this study examined the dynamics of a key environmental microbe it offers a window into understanding life in extreme environments, in some cases created by human activities, such as the concentration of pollution by evaporation or high salt marine environments.”

James Devitt | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.nyu.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Obstructing the ‘inner eye’
07.07.2017 | Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

nachricht Drone vs. truck deliveries: Which create less carbon pollution?
31.05.2017 | University of Washington

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...

Im Focus: The proton precisely weighted

What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.

To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...

Im Focus: On the way to a biological alternative

A bacterial enzyme enables reactions that open up alternatives to key industrial chemical processes

The research team of Prof. Dr. Oliver Einsle at the University of Freiburg's Institute of Biochemistry has long been exploring the functioning of nitrogenase....

Im Focus: The 1 trillion tonne iceberg

Larsen C Ice Shelf rift finally breaks through

A one trillion tonne iceberg - one of the biggest ever recorded -- has calved away from the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica, after a rift in the ice,...

Im Focus: Laser-cooled ions contribute to better understanding of friction

Physics supports biology: Researchers from PTB have developed a model system to investigate friction phenomena with atomic precision

Friction: what you want from car brakes, otherwise rather a nuisance. In any case, it is useful to know as precisely as possible how friction phenomena arise –...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Closing the Sustainability Circle: Protection of Food with Biobased Materials

21.07.2017 | Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

The technology with a feel for feelings

12.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA looks to solar eclipse to help understand Earth's energy system

21.07.2017 | Earth Sciences

Stanford researchers develop a new type of soft, growing robot

21.07.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Vortex photons from electrons in circular motion

21.07.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>