"CO2 restriction policies in Spain have an impact on the economy, in other words, making it lean more towards an economy of services. The weight of the industry and energy sectors is reduced, and this is due to the fact that there is a change in production and consumption patterns resulting from CO2 which will come at a price", Mikel González-Eguino, author of the study and researcher for BC3 explains to SINC .
The study, which is published in the journal Investigación Económica also indicates that these policies encourage a minor change in consumption patterns. "The creation of a tax on CO2 may cause emissions to reduce, and change the habits related to large-scale energy consumption", states the expert.
The investigation follows an economic analysis model called "general equilibrium", which makes it possible to analyse the effects of global policies such as those for reducing CO2. The research data come from the National Institute of Statistics (INE in Spanish) and from the energy balances of the European Union (EU) statistics agency EUROSTAT.
What are the costs of the emission of GHGs?
The methodology responds to questions such as: What are the general costs of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) for different degrees of reduction of emissions and different speeds of reduction?
"We analyse the targeting (emission reduction objective) and the timing, in other words, the extent to which this objective progresses or is delayed in time", points out the investigator. In this sense, the impact of the timing of CO2 reduction is determined by technological evolution.
"The conclusion is that if technology evolves following the current trend the best option is above all to reduce emissions rather than postpone it in time because the difference in costs is relatively insignificant. However, if technology evolves in a more radical way and in the short-term, for example, with new batteries to produce electric cars that are much cheaper than the current ones or substantial advances arise in renewable energy to replace other technology, it would be more profitable to delay the reduction of emissions.
Policies for reducing emissions in Spain
In the Kyoto Protocol Spain committed to increase its emissions by no more than 15% compared to the levels in 1990. This objective was extended through the National Allocation Plan (2008-2012) to 24% through by counting carbon sinks (2%) and the purchase of credits in the market of rights (7%).
In 2007 emissions exceeded 50% and positioned Spain as one of the European countries furthest from meeting its objectives. Even though this trend started to reverse in 2006 (the economy grew by 4% and emissions fell by 4%), it was the economic crisis (2008-2009) which forced a reduction in emissions.
Bibliographical reference: Mikel González-Eguino, "Economic impact of Post-Kyoto scenarios in Spain" INVESTIGACION ECONOMICA 69 (271): 139 January/March 2010.
SINC | EurekAlert!
Amputees can learn to control a robotic arm with their minds
28.11.2017 | University of Chicago Medical Center
The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change
17.11.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig
DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors.
Researchers have created chemical amplifiers and a chemical oscillator using a systematic method that has the potential to embed sophisticated circuit...
MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.
Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...
Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...
Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.
To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.
Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...
11.12.2017 | Event News
08.12.2017 | Event News
07.12.2017 | Event News
15.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
15.12.2017 | Materials Sciences
15.12.2017 | Life Sciences