Transferrable fishing rights were introduced in Sweden as late as 2009, and then only for species such as herring and mackerel. A report from the inquiry into Sweden’s new Fishery Conservation Act has recently been out for consultation and paves the way for the introduction of this system for all commercial fishing. Annual vessel quotas for cod fishing in the Baltic Sea were introduced on 1 April this year.
The lack of well defined owners of fishing rights encourages a race to catch fish the world over. Increased trading in fish can also entail a threat, not least to the economies of developing countries. Of course, trade generates income, but it also increases the strain on fish stocks.
A system of catch quotas and fishing rights for groups of commercial fishermen or individuals can work well and contribute to more sustainable and productive fishing, reveals Håkan Eggert’s research.
In one of his studies, Eggert compares how well labour, capital and fish stocks have been used in the Swedish, Norwegian and Icelandic fishing industries over a period of 30 years.
“Our hypothesis was that these countries share similar fishing conditions, and that if we looked at labour, capital and fish stocks the differences in the management system would perhaps become evident,” says Eggert. “The results show that Iceland, which reformed its fishing in line with economists’ recommendation to introduce transferable catch quotas and thus put a price on sea fish, has fared far better in terms of productivity.”Since 1990 Iceland has completely, and Norway has largely, managed national fishing by means of individual fishing quotas, which were not introduced in Sweden until 2009. From 1990 to 2003 productivity increased sharply in Icelandic and Norwegian fisheries, while Swedish productivity growth was low. This was despite the fact that 70% of Swedish fishermen left the industry during the period, compared with half in Norway and none at all in Iceland.
“Icelandic fisheries would thus appear to be more sustainable than its Swedish counterpart,” says Eggert. “By sustainable, I mean how well they use resources from a biological and economic perspective.”
Eggert’s second study looks at six fishermen who jointly received exclusive rights to fish for prawns in the Gullmar fjord marine nature reserve. They were awarded 100 fishing days a year, which they divided equally between themselves. From 2000 to 2007 their income rose dramatically. The price differential between Gullmar prawns and offshore prawns rose from 15% to 75%. At the same time, the Gullmar fishermen had voluntarily increased the mesh size of their nets from the minimum requirement of 35 mm to 45 mm, with the aim of leaving small prawns to grow to optimum size.“A small informal market also developed, where the fisherman bought and sold fishing days within the group,” says Eggert. “As is the case with Icelandic fishing, this example demonstrates the potential of a system of individually transferable fishing quotas to reduce over-capacity in Swedish fishing.”
Eggert’s research results are also an example of what Elinor Ostrom – winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics 2009 – has shown, namely that when users themselves get to make the decisions on a shared natural resource, they will choose an approach that is long-term sustainable. This contradicts traditional economic theory, which states that people will choose individual gain over the best interests of the group, and demonstrates that people are both willing and able to work together when it comes to shared resources.For further information, please contact:
Helena Aaberg | idw
Drone vs. truck deliveries: Which create less carbon pollution?
31.05.2017 | University of Washington
New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)
An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.
Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...
Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.
Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...
Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.
As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...
Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.
With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...
Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine
Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...
19.06.2017 | Event News
13.06.2017 | Event News
13.06.2017 | Event News
26.06.2017 | Life Sciences
26.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
26.06.2017 | Information Technology