Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Penn molecular scientists develop color-changing stress sensor

19.08.2011
It is helpful — even life-saving — to have a warning sign before a structural system fails, but, when the system is only a few nanometers in size, having a sign that's easy to read is a challenge.

Now, thanks to a clever bit of molecular design by University of Pennsylvania and Duke University bioengineers and chemists, such warning can come in the form of a simple color change.


This is an enhanced image of a polymersome changing color under stress. Credit: Neha Kamat, University of Pennsylvania

The study was conducted by professor Daniel Hammer and graduate students Neha Kamat and Laurel Moses of the Department of Bioengineering in Penn's School of Engineering and Applied Science. They collaborated with associate professor Ivan Dmochowski and graduate student Zhengzheng Liao of the Department of Chemistry in Penn's School of Arts and Sciences, as well as professor Michael Therien and graduate student Jeff Rawson of Duke.

Their work was published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The researchers' work involves two molecules: porphyrins, a class of naturally occurring pigments, and polymersomes, artificially engineered capsules that can carry a molecular payload in their hollow interiors. In this case, Kamat and Liao hypothesized that polymersomes could be used as stress sensors if their membranes were embedded with a certain type of light-emitting porphyrins.

The Penn researchers collaborated with the Therien lab, where the porphyrins were originally developed, to design polymersomes that were studded with the light-emitting molecules. When light is shined on these labeled polymersomes, the porphyrins absorb the light and then release it at a specific wavelength, or color. The Therien lab's porphyrins play a critical role in using the polymersomes as stress sensors, because their configuration and concentration controls the release of light.

"When you package these porphyrins in a confined environment, such as a polymersome membrane, you can modulate the light emission from the molecules," Hammer said. "If you put a stress on the confined environment, you change the porphyrin's configuration, and, because their optical release is tied to their configuration, you can use the optical release as a direct measure of the stress in the environment."

For example, the labeled polymersomes could be injected into the blood stream and serve as a proxy for neighboring red blood cells. As both the cells and polymersomes travel through an arterial blockage, for example, scientists would be able to better understand what happens to the blood cell membranes by making inferences from the stress label measurements.

The researchers calibrated the polymersomes by subjecting them to several kinds of controlled stresses — tension and heat, among others — and measuring their color changes. The changes are gradations of the near infrared spectrum, so measurements must be made by computers, rather than the naked eye. Rapidly advancing body-scanning technology, which uses light rather than magnetism or radiation, is well suited to this approach.

Other advances in medicine could benefit, as well. As cutting-edge pharmaceutical approaches already use similar molecular technology, the researchers' porphyrin labeling system could be integrated into medicine-carrying polymersomes.

"These kinds of tools could be used to monitor drug delivery, for example," Kamat said. "If we have a way to see how stressed the container is over time, we know how much of the drug has come out."

And, though the researchers chose the engineered polymersomes due to the wide range of stress they can endure, the same stress-labeling technique could soon be applied directly to naturally occurring tissues.

"One future application for this is to use dyes like these porphyrins but include them directly in a cellular membranes," Kamat said. "No one has taken a look at the intrinsic stress inside a membrane so these molecules would be perfect for the job."

The work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation and its Materials Research Science and Engineering Center program and the National Center for Research Resources.

Kamat is an NSF Graduate Fellow.

Evan Lerner | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.upenn.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Smart Data Transformation – Surfing the Big Wave
02.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Informationstechnik FIT

nachricht Climate change could outpace EPA Lake Champlain protections
18.11.2016 | University of Vermont

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>