They also experienced half as many complications after surgery as the patients who did not receive help to give up smoking, with 21 per cent experiencing problems as opposed to 41 per cent.
Researchers randomly assigned 117 patients who were due to undergo general or orthopaedic surgery to an intervention and control group.
“The intervention group attended weekly meetings or received telephone support and were provided with free nicotine replacement therapy, while the control group just received standard pre-operative care” says lead author Dr Omid Sadr Azodi from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden.
“Patients were then assessed at regular intervals before and after surgery and after 12 months.
“One interesting thing to emerge from the study was the high refusal rate. A further 76 patients declined to take part in our research because they were unwilling to give up smoking or were stressed by their forthcoming surgery.”
Key findings from the study included:
Twenty of the patients in the intervention group (36 per cent) abstained from smoking for the minimum period of three weeks before their operation and four weeks after surgery, compared with one patient in the control group (two per cent). The figures peaked at 58 per cent one week before surgery.
People in the intervention group were more than twice as likely to be smoke free at 12 months than those in the control group. Eighteen of the intervention group (33 per cent) were still smoke free and nine members of the control group had given up (15 per cent).
Patients with a lower level of nicotine dependence – who scored less than four on the zero to ten Fagerstrom scale – were 3.4 times more likely to be smoke free at 12 months.
Those with a high body mass index - of more than 30 - were 3.3 times more likely to be smoke free after 12 months.
Being employed increased the long-term success rate to 2.3, but marital status, education and living with a smoker had no significant bearing on abstinence rates at 12 months.
The majority of the patients who took part completed the study - 87 per cent of the intervention group and 84 per cent of the control group.
Just over half of the 117 patients (53 per cent) were male and the average age was 56. Their average body mass index was just over 25. Median smoking levels were ten to 20 cigarettes a day and the median time since patients started smoking was just over 35 years. Just over a third (36 per cent) had a nicotine dependency score of less than four.
As well as the medical condition they were receiving surgery for, 15 per cent suffered from depression, 12 per cent from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nine per cent from chronic heart disease and two per cent from diabetes.
“Smokers are prone to developing a number of complications after surgery, ranging from impaired wound and bone healing to life-threatening pulmonary and cardiovascular problems” says Dr Sadr Azodi. “This is why it is so important to find feasible, financially attractive and effective ways to help patients stop smoking before surgery.
“Our study shows that providing support in the run up to surgery enabled a third of the patients who took part in the study to remain smoke free after a year.
“Lower nicotine dependence levels were significantly associated with long-term abstinence and we believe that high levels should be classed as a chronic disorder. Our intervention was for a fairly intense eight-week period, but we recognise that people with higher levels of dependency may need longer to help them stop smoking before surgery.”
Annette Whibley | alfa
Further reports about: > Body Mass Index > Diabetes > Nicotine Replacement Therapy > abstinence rates > cardiovascular problems > chronic heart disease > chronic obstructive pulmonary disease > complications after surgery > life-threatening pulmonary > nicotine dependence > orthopaedic surgery > standard pre-operative care
The Great Unknown: Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents
19.01.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung
A sudden drop in outdoor temperature increases the risk of respiratory infections
11.01.2017 | University of Gothenburg
An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...
Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
19.01.2017 | Event News
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
19.01.2017 | Earth Sciences
19.01.2017 | Life Sciences
19.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy