Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Obese youths have a nearly 6 fold risk of hypertension

01.09.2014

Obese youths have a nearly six fold risk of hypertension, according to research in more than 22 000 young people from the PEP Family Heart Study presented at ESC Congress today by Professor Peter Schwandt from Germany.

Professor Schwandt said: "The prevalence of hypertension and obesity in children and adolescents is continuing to rise in most high and middle-income countries. Because adiposity is considered a driving force for cardiovascular disease, we examined whether elevated blood pressure was associated with body fat distribution in young people."

The current study included 22 051 children and adolescents from the PEP (Prevention Education Program) Family Heart Study (1). In each participant, the researchers measured blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), skinfold thickness (SFT) and percent body fat (%BF).

Professor Schwandt said: "These measures are simple, inexpensive, risk free and can be used in offices, schools and at home. However, they must be performed correctly and age and gender specific cut-off values have to be used in growing children and adolescents." (figure 1) (2)

Prehypertension was defined as a blood pressure reading between the 90th and 95th percentile of the blood pressure curve for children and adolescents, while hypertension was a blood pressure reading over the 95th percentile. The diagnosis was based on several measurements on separate days and on repeated estimations with the child sitting quietly for five minutes. The researchers used an adequate cuff size for the arm in the correct position.

The researchers found that compared with normal weight children and adolescents, the risk of prehypertension was significantly higher in youths with an elevated BMI (3). The risk was 1.6 fold higher in overweight and 2.4 fold higher in obese boys, and 1.8 fold higher in overweight and 3.3 fold higher in obese girls.

The significant associations with adverse fat patterning were even stronger for the risk of hypertension. In obese boys the odds ratio (OR) was 5.9 and in obese girls 4.3. Professor Schwandt said: "We found that obese boys had a nearly six fold increased risk of hypertension compared to normal weight boys. In obese girls the risk was more than four times greater than their normal weight counterparts."

The prevalence of elevated blood pressure increased in boys and girls as body weight went up (figure 2). The prevalence of prehypertension/hypertension in normal weight, overweight and obese youths was 13.2%/5.7%, 18.3/10.4% and 21.9/18.6% in boys and 12.9/5.0% 18.7/9.1% and 24.9/24.4% in girls, respectively.

Professor Schwandt said: "Our study clearly shows that the fatter young people are, the greater their risk of prehypertension and hypertension. Any weight loss they can achieve will help reduce their risk."

The researchers also found increased risk of hypertension with elevated SFT and %BF measurements, (4) and abdominal adiposity (5).

Professor Schwandt concluded: "General and abdominal adiposity, estimated using simple and inexpensive methods, are already significantly associated with prehypertension and hypertension in children and adolescents. This is of great importance because of the ongoing rise in the prevalence of hypertension and overweight/obesity in young people and the tracking of childhood overweight into adulthood."

Figure 1: Growth curves for % body fat in boys and girls (2)

Figure 2: Prevalence of normal blood pressure, prehypertension and hypertension in 22 051 children and adolescents according to their weight groups

###

References

(1) The PEP (Prevention Education Program) Family Heart Study is a prospective community-based observational study which was performed from 1994 to 2008 in Nuremberg, Germany. The aim of the study is to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, examine whether sustained healthy lifestyles can be implemented in 3 268 healthy families, and evaluate associations between lifestyle change and CVD risk factors in 24 927 parents and their 23 740 children aged 3-18 years.

(2) Schwandt P, von Eckardstein A, Haas GM. Percentiles of percentage body fat in German children and adolescents: an international comparison. Int J Prev Med. 2012 Dec;3(12):846-852.

(3) Normal weight, overweight and obesity were defined using the BMI growth curve for children and adolescents. Normal weight was a BMI less than the 85th percentile, overweight was a BMI between the 85th and 95th percentile, and obesity was a BMI over the 95th percentile.

(4) When the researchers looked at SFT measurements, they found that if the sum of subscapular plus triceps SFT was above 35 mm, the risk of hypertension was 5.8 fold in boys and 3.4 fold in girls. The risk increased to 5.6 fold in boys and 3.4 fold in girls when they also had a %BF above the 95th percentile.

(5) Abdominal adiposity predicted a 3 to 4 fold risk of hypertension. A WC above the 90th percentile increased the risk by 3.5 in boys and 3.1 in girls, while a WHtR greater than 0.5 increased risk by 3.9 in boys and 3.8 in girls.

Notes to editor

The PEP Family Heart Study is continuously supported by the Foundation for the Prevention of Atherosclerosis, Nuremberg, Germany.

Authors: ESC Press Office
Tel: +34 670 521 210 (ESC Spokesperson Coordinator – Tanya Kenny)
Email: press@escardio.org

About the European Society of Cardiology

The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) represents more than 80 000 cardiology professionals across Europe and the Mediterranean. Its mission is to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in Europe.

About ESC Congress 2014

ESC Congress is currently the world's largest international congress in cardiovascular medicine. ESC Congress 2014 takes place 30 August to 3 September at the Fira Gran Via congress centre in Barcelona, Spain.

This press release accompanies both a presentation and an ESC press conference at the ESC Congress 2014. The press release has been written by the investigator and edited by the ESC and does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Society of Cardiology.

ESC Press Office | Eurek Alert!

Further reports about: BMI Cardiology ESC PEP Prevention adolescents blood hypertension pressure risk weight

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Study suggests new way of preventing diabetes-associated blindness
26.05.2015 | Johns Hopkins Medicine

nachricht Memories Influence Choice of Food
22.05.2015 | Universität Basel

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Lasers are the key to mastering challenges in lightweight construction

Many joining and cutting processes are possible only with lasers. New technologies make it possible to manufacture metal components with hollow structures that are significantly lighter and yet just as stable as solid components. In addition, lasers can be used to combine various lightweight construction materials and steels with each other. The Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen is presenting a range of such solutions at the LASER World of Photonics trade fair from June 22 to 25, 2015 in Munich, Germany, (Hall A3, Stand 121).

Lightweight construction materials are popular: aluminum is used in the bodywork of cars, for example, and aircraft fuselages already consist in large part of...

Im Focus: Solid-state photonics goes extreme ultraviolet

Using ultrashort laser pulses, scientists in Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have demonstrated the emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation from thin dielectric films and have investigated the underlying mechanisms.

In 1961, only shortly after the invention of the first laser, scientists exposed silicon dioxide crystals (also known as quartz) to an intense ruby laser to...

Im Focus: Advance in regenerative medicine

The only professorship in Germany to date, one master's programme, one laboratory with worldwide unique equipment and the corresponding research results: The University of Würzburg is leading in the field of biofabrication.

Paul Dalton is presently the only professor of biofabrication in Germany. About a year ago, the Australian researcher relocated to the Würzburg department for...

Im Focus: Basel Physicists Develop Efficient Method of Signal Transmission from Nanocomponents

Physicists have developed an innovative method that could enable the efficient use of nanocomponents in electronic circuits. To achieve this, they have developed a layout in which a nanocomponent is connected to two electrical conductors, which uncouple the electrical signal in a highly efficient manner. The scientists at the Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel have published their results in the scientific journal “Nature Communications” together with their colleagues from ETH Zurich.

Electronic components are becoming smaller and smaller. Components measuring just a few nanometers – the size of around ten atoms – are already being produced...

Im Focus: IoT-based Advanced Automobile Parking Navigation System

Development and implementation of an advanced automobile parking navigation platform for parking services

To fulfill the requirements of the industry, PolyU researchers developed the Advanced Automobile Parking Navigation Platform, which includes smart devices,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International symposium: trends in spatial analysis and modelling for a more sustainable land use

20.05.2015 | Event News

15th conference of the International Association of Colloid and Interface Scientists

18.05.2015 | Event News

EHFG 2015: Securing health in Europe. Balancing priorities, sharing responsibilities

12.05.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quasi-sexual gene transfer drives genetic diversity of hot spring bacteria

29.05.2015 | Life Sciences

First Eastern Pacific tropical depression runs ahead of dawn

29.05.2015 | Earth Sciences

Donuts, math, and superdense teleportation of quantum information

29.05.2015 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>