Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New study into animal social behavior: Love or kill thy neighbor?

06.03.2014

A theoretical study led by the University of Exeter has shed new light on the conditions that lead to the evolution of spite or altruism in structured populations.

Understanding the way in which social behaviours such as altruism – when animals benefit others at their own expense – develop is a long-standing problem that has generated thousands of articles and heated debates.


A subordinate female meerkat babysits her mother's young; an iconic example of cooperative behavior in mammals.

Credit: Andy Young -- wildimages.org

Dr Florence Débarre of Biosciences at the University of Exeter led a study, published today in Nature Communications, which presents a comprehensive framework that applies to a large class of population structures and identifies the crucial elements which support the evolution of social behaviour.

Structured populations are those exhibiting either spatial or social structure. This can range from animals living in social groups - like meerkats - to bacteria in biofilms.

In these populations altruism evolves if, for individuals, the social benefit of living next to others outweighs the costs of competing against them.

Traditionally, population modellers have assumed that the direct benefits and costs of social interactions affect the ability to produce offspring (the fecundity). In natural populations, however, social interactions may also affect survival.

Dr Débarre and her collaborators combined these two features in their model, which revealed new insights. It turns out that helping your neighbours reproduce more or helping them live for longer does not have the same indirect consequences on your own fitness. These indirect consequences are crucial, and determine which type of social behaviour (helping, harming or doing nothing) can evolve.

When competition is fierce because space is so limited that an individual can only reproduce after some space has been freed up by the death of a neighbour, the researcher's results show that the social behaviours that are most advantageous are the ones in which individuals make their neighbours die sooner but at the same time help them reproduce. In other terms, the interaction is spiteful when it comes to survival, but altruistic on fecundity.

Dr Débarre, who is based at the University of Exeter's Penryn Campus in Cornwall, said: "In structured populations, social behaviour evolves if, for social individuals, the net social benefit of living next to other social individuals outweighs the costs of competing against them. We show that the latter depends on the way the population is updated, the type of social game that is played, and on how social interactions affect individual fertility and survival.

"There are ongoing and sometimes very heated debates on which mechanisms favour the evolution of social behaviour. Our mathematical framework also aims at reconciling these different approaches, and shows that they mainly correspond to different viewpoints of the same questions, depending on if we want to give explanations in terms of who is giving benefits to others, or who is receiving benefits."

###

The article, 'Social evolution in structured populations', by F. Débarre, C. Hauert & M.Doebeli, is published in the latest edition of Nature Communications.

Eleanor Gaskarth | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.exeter.ac.uk

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht New study: How stable is the West Antarctic Ice Sheet?
09.02.2016 | Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung

nachricht Online shopping might not be as green as we thought
08.02.2016 | University of Delaware

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The most accurate optical single-ion clock worldwide

Atomic clock experts from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) are the first research group in the world to have built an optical single-ion clock which attains an accuracy which had only been predicted theoretically so far. Their optical ytterbium clock achieved a relative systematic measurement uncertainty of 3 E-18. The results have been published in the current issue of the scientific journal "Physical Review Letters".

Atomic clock experts from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) are the first research group in the world to have built an optical single-ion clock...

Im Focus: Goodbye ground control: autonomous nanosatellites

The University of Würzburg has two new space projects in the pipeline which are concerned with the observation of planets and autonomous fault correction aboard satellites. The German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy funds the projects with around 1.6 million euros.

Detecting tornadoes that sweep across Mars. Discovering meteors that fall to Earth. Investigating strange lightning that flashes from Earth's atmosphere into...

Im Focus: Flow phenomena on solid surfaces: Physicists highlight key role played by boundary layer velocity

Physicists from Saarland University and the ESPCI in Paris have shown how liquids on solid surfaces can be made to slide over the surface a bit like a bobsleigh on ice. The key is to apply a coating at the boundary between the liquid and the surface that induces the liquid to slip. This results in an increase in the average flow velocity of the liquid and its throughput. This was demonstrated by studying the behaviour of droplets on surfaces with different coatings as they evolved into the equilibrium state. The results could prove useful in optimizing industrial processes, such as the extrusion of plastics.

The study has been published in the respected academic journal PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America).

Im Focus: New study: How stable is the West Antarctic Ice Sheet?

Exceeding critical temperature limits in the Southern Ocean may cause the collapse of ice sheets and a sharp rise in sea levels

A future warming of the Southern Ocean caused by rising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere may severely disrupt the stability of the West...

Im Focus: Superconductivity: footballs with no resistance

Indications of light-induced lossless electricity transmission in fullerenes contribute to the search for superconducting materials for practical applications.

Superconductors have long been confined to niche applications, due to the fact that the highest temperature at which even the best of these materials becomes...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Travel grants available: Meet the world’s most proficient mathematicians and computer scientists

09.02.2016 | Event News

AKL’16: Experience Laser Technology Live in Europe´s Largest Laser Application Center!

02.02.2016 | Event News

From intelligent knee braces to anti-theft backpacks

26.01.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

About injured hearts that grow back - Heart regeneration mechanism in zebrafish revealed

10.02.2016 | Life Sciences

The most accurate optical single-ion clock worldwide

10.02.2016 | Earth Sciences

Absorbing acoustics with soundless spirals

10.02.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>