Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Measuring segments of genetic material may help predict and monitor recurrence after thyroid cancer

28.10.2013
A new analysis has found that the presence of short segments of genetic material (known as microRNA) within papillary thyroid cancer tumors suggests a likelihood of recurrence after patients undergo surgery.

The study, which is published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, also found that elevated blood levels of the genetic material after surgery may indicate a higher possibility of recurrence after thyroidectomy.

MicroRNAs are copies of very short segments of genetic material that modulate gene expression. Researchers have found that dysregulation of microRNAs may play a role in the development of cancer, and microRNA profiles or "signatures" may be used to classify different types of thyroid tumors.

By studying tumor tissue from patients with papillary thyroid cancer, the most common endocrine malignancy, PhD candidate James Lee*, MBBS, FRACS, of the Kolling Institute of Medical Research and University of Sydney in Australia, under supervision from Professor Stan Sidhu, and his colleagues found that high levels of two specific microRNAs (microRNA-222 and -146b) within tumors indicated that cancer was more likely to recur after patients' tumors were surgically removed.

"This kind of test may help doctors select which patients may need more aggressive additional treatment after surgery, or be monitored more closely after initial treatment," said Lee. "As most patients with papillary type thyroid cancer do very well with standard treatment, we are always working on ways to help us select the small group that do not fair so well so we can use our medical resources more efficiently and minimize interruptions to patients' lives."

Also, the same two microRNAs were present at high levels in the blood of thyroid cancer patients compared with healthy individuals, but after thyroid surgery, the blood levels in the patients fell to normal levels. "This suggests that we may be able to track the presence of papillary thyroid cancer by a microRNA blood test," said Lee.

Dr. Lee added that the current blood test for the detection of recurrent papillary thyroid cancer is not accurate in up to a quarter of patients either because of interference from the patients' antibodies or other cancer-related factors. "Therefore, an alternative blood test measuring microRNA levels would be a great complement to what is already available," he said. Blood levels of the microRNAs may not be a good initial diagnostic tool for papillary thyroid cancer, though, because study participants with multinodular goiter, which is a common non-cancer thyroid condition, also had elevated levels in their blood. Also, the specific threshold miRNA level at which additional treatment would be warranted remains to be clarified.

Follow-up studies are needed to see if blood levels of microRNA-222 and microRNA-146b actually do increase when cancer recurs. Also, the accuracy of both tests—performed on tumors and on blood samples—needs to be improved before the tests can become clinically useful.

*Dr. Lee is currently at the Alfred Hospital, Monash Partners Academic Health Science Center.

Amy Molnar | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wiley.com

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Do microplastics harbour additional risks by colonization with harmful bacteria?
05.04.2018 | Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung Warnemünde

nachricht Rutgers-led innovation could spur faster, cheaper, nano-based manufacturing
14.02.2018 | Rutgers University

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Molecules Brilliantly Illuminated

Physicists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics, which is jointly run by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have developed a high-power laser system that generates ultrashort pulses of light covering a large share of the mid-infrared spectrum. The researchers envisage a wide range of applications for the technology – in the early diagnosis of cancer, for instance.

Molecules are the building blocks of life. Like all other organisms, we are made of them. They control our biorhythm, and they can also reflect our state of...

Im Focus: Spider silk key to new bone-fixing composite

University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.

Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.

Im Focus: Writing and deleting magnets with lasers

Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.

Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...

Im Focus: Gamma-ray flashes from plasma filaments

Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.

The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...

Im Focus: Basel researchers succeed in cultivating cartilage from stem cells

Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult stem cells originating from bone marrow. This is made possible by inducing specific molecular processes occurring during embryonic cartilage formation, as researchers from the University and University Hospital of Basel report in the scientific journal PNAS.

Certain mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from the bone marrow of adults are considered extremely promising for skeletal tissue regeneration. These adult stem...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

IWOLIA: A conference bringing together German Industrie 4.0 and French Industrie du Futur

09.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Structured light and nanomaterials open new ways to tailor light at the nanoscale

23.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

On the shape of the 'petal' for the dissipation curve

23.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Clean and Efficient – Fraunhofer ISE Presents Hydrogen Technologies at the HANNOVER MESSE 2018

23.04.2018 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>