A major study of three to 19 year-olds has provided vital data on the weight problems faced by the growing number of children and young people with type 1 diabetes, which is more prevalent in younger age groups than type 2 diabetes.
The findings of the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study Group, published online by Pediatric Diabetes, show that children and youths with type 1 diabetes are more likely to be overweight than those without diabetes.
Researchers from six clinical centres across the USA took part in the study, which compared data from 3,953 diabetics, aged between three and 19, taking part in the SEARCH study, with data for 7,666 non-diabetic children and youths from a national US study.
"The links between type 2 diabetes and excess weight are well documented, but are less clear in type 1 diabetes which affects less than 10 per cent of people with diabetes but is more common in children and young people" explains lead researcher Dr Lenna Liu from the Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development at Seattle Children's Hospital USA.
"When people have diabetes their blood glucose can become too high" she continues. "In type 1 diabetes, this happens because an autoimmune process has destroyed the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, allowing glucose levels to rise. Type 2 diabetes occurs when not enough insulin is being produced or the insulin is not working properly. Traditionally a disease in overweight adults, type 2 diabetes is increasingly being seen in younger patients as childhood obesity levels increase."
The population-based study looked at a racially and ethnically diverse group of children and young people with diabetes and compared them with the non-diabetic control group.
Most of the children and youths who took part in the study had type 1 diabetes (89 %) and tended to be younger – 49% of the type 1 group were aged three to 11, compared to 7% of the type 2 group.
The type 1 diabetes subjects were equally split between male and female and three-quarters (75%) were non-Hispanic White, 12% were Hispanic, 9% were African American, 4% were Asian/Pacific Islanders and 1% were American Indian.
Key findings included:
Non-Hispanic White males aged from three to 11 with type 1 diabetes were more likely to be overweight/obese than females (34% versus 27%) while females were more likely to be overweight/obese when they were 12-19 years of age (37% versus 29%).
African American females were significantly more likely to be overweight/obese in both age groups than males (54/55% versus 36/36%) but there were no significant differences between Hispanic males and females.
More than a fifth of the children and youths with type 1 diabetes (22%) were overweight, compared with 10% of those with type 2 diabetes and 16% of those without diabetes.
When this was broken down by race/ethnicity, 28% of Hispanic children and youths with type 1 diabetes were overweight, as were 24% of Asian/Pacific Islanders, 23% of African Americans, 21% of non-Hispanic Whites and 15% of American Indians.
The figures for children and youths with type 2 diabetes showed that 15% of Asian/Pacific Islanders were overweight, as were 14% of non-Hispanic Whites and 11% of Hispanics.
Approximately one in eight children and youths with type 1 diabetes (13%) were obese, less than the 79% of subjects with type 2 diabetes and the 17% without diabetes.
When this was broken down by race/ethnicity, 20% of African American children and youths with type 1 diabetes were obese, as were 17% of Hispanics, 17% of Asian/Pacific Islanders and 11% of non-Hispanic Whites.
The figures for children and youths with type 2 diabetes showed that 91% of African Americans were obese, as were 88% of American Indians and 75% of Hispanics.
"Knowing the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and young people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes is very important as it helps us to identify those individuals - by age, gender or race/ethnicity - who face the greatest risk of the clinical complications associated with excess weight" say Dr Liu.
"We feel that further studies are critical to help us to better understand how weight causes complications in the growing number of children and young people with diabetes and influences the diagnosis and treatment they receive."
The study was funded by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.
Notes to editors
Prevalence of overweight and obesity in youth with diabetes in USA: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Liu et al. Pediatric Diabetes. Published online.
Pediatric Diabetes is a bi-monthly journal devoted to disseminating new knowledge relating to the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, management, complications and prevention of diabetes in childhood and adolescence. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118545642/home
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons, with strengths in every major academic and professional field and partnerships with many of the world's leading societies. Wiley-Blackwell publishes over 1,400 peer-reviewed journals as well as 1,500+ new books annually in print and online, as well as databases, major reference works and laboratory protocols. For more information, please visit www.wileyblackwell.com or www.interscience.wiley.com
The personality factor: How to foster the sharing of research data
06.09.2017 | ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
Europe’s Demographic Future. Where the Regions Are Heading after a Decade of Crises
10.08.2017 | Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
19.09.2017 | Event News
12.09.2017 | Event News
06.09.2017 | Event News
22.09.2017 | Life Sciences
22.09.2017 | Medical Engineering
22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy