A study in the Dec. 1 issue of the journal SLEEP found that loud snoring and two common insomnia symptoms - difficulty falling asleep and unrefreshing sleep - each significantly predicted the development of the metabolic syndrome. The study emphasizes the importance of screening for common sleep complaints in routine clinical practice.
Results of multivariate logistic regression models show that the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome over a three-year follow-up period was more than two times higher in adults who reported frequent loud snoring (odds ratio = 2.30). This risk also was increased by 80 percent in adults who reported having difficulty falling asleep (OR = 1.81) and by 70 percent in those who reported that their sleep was unrefreshing (OR = 1.71).
Further analysis found that unrefreshing sleep was reduced to marginal significance with additional adjustment for loud snoring. However, when simultaneously entered in a statistical model, both loud snoring and difficulty falling asleep remained significant independent predictors of the metabolic syndrome.
"This is the first prospective study to show that a broader array of commonly reported sleep symptoms, including insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing symptoms, predict the development of the metabolic syndrome, a key risk factor for cardiovascular disease," said lead author Wendy M. Troxel, PhD, assistant professor of psychiatry and psychology at the University of Pittsburgh in Pittsburgh, Pa. "It was rather striking that the effects of difficulty falling asleep and loud snoring were largely independent of one another."
According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, metabolic syndrome is a group of obesity-related risk factors that increases an individual's risk of heart disease, diabetes and stroke. A person with at least three of these five risk factors is considered to have metabolic syndrome: excess abdominal fat, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure and high blood sugar.
Analyses of these five individual components of the metabolic syndrome revealed that loud snoring significantly predicted the development of high blood sugar (OR = 2.15) and low HDL cholesterol (1.92). Difficulty falling asleep and unrefreshing sleep did not predict any of the individual metabolic abnormalities.
Only loud snoring continued to predict the development of the metabolic syndrome after accounting for the number of metabolic abnormalities present at baseline. According to the authors, this suggests that loud snoring may be a causal risk factor cardiometabolic dysregulation.
The study involved 812 participants in Heart SCORE, an ongoing, community-based, prospective study of adults between 45 and 74 years of age. People who were classified as having the metabolic syndrome or diabetes at baseline were excluded form the study. During the three-year follow-up period, 14 percent of participants developed the metabolic syndrome.
Self-reported sleep disturbances were assessed using the Insomnia Symptom Questionnaire and the Multivariable Apnea Prediction Questionnaire. The development of the metabolic syndrome was unrelated to difficulty staying asleep and frequent awakening from sleep, which are two other insomnia symptoms that are commonly reported.
Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), an average of the combined episodes of partial reductions (hypopneas) and complete pauses (apneas) in breathing per hour of sleep, was calculated in a subset of 290 participants who wore a portable monitor that measured nasal airflow. In an analysis of this subset, loud snoring remained an independent predictor of the development of the metabolic syndrome (OR = 3.01) even after adjusting for AHI, while difficulty falling asleep was reduced to marginal statistical significance.
More information about snoring is available from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine at http://www.sleepeducation.com/Disorder.aspx?id=26.
The study was supported by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Health; and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Clinical & Translational Science Awards of the National Institutes of Health.
The peer-reviewed, scientific journal SLEEP is published monthly by the Associated Professional Sleep Societies LLC, a joint venture of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society. The AASM is a professional membership society that is the leader in setting standards and promoting excellence in sleep medicine health care, education and research.
For a copy of the study, "Sleep symptoms predict the development of the metabolic syndrome," or to arrange an interview with an AASM spokesperson, please contact Public Relations Coordinator Emilee McStay at 630-737-9700, ext. 9345, or email@example.com.
Emilee McStay | EurekAlert!
Smart Data Transformation – Surfing the Big Wave
02.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Informationstechnik FIT
Climate change could outpace EPA Lake Champlain protections
18.11.2016 | University of Vermont
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine
07.12.2016 | Life Sciences
07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine