A study in the Dec. 1 issue of the journal SLEEP found that loud snoring and two common insomnia symptoms - difficulty falling asleep and unrefreshing sleep - each significantly predicted the development of the metabolic syndrome. The study emphasizes the importance of screening for common sleep complaints in routine clinical practice.
Results of multivariate logistic regression models show that the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome over a three-year follow-up period was more than two times higher in adults who reported frequent loud snoring (odds ratio = 2.30). This risk also was increased by 80 percent in adults who reported having difficulty falling asleep (OR = 1.81) and by 70 percent in those who reported that their sleep was unrefreshing (OR = 1.71).
Further analysis found that unrefreshing sleep was reduced to marginal significance with additional adjustment for loud snoring. However, when simultaneously entered in a statistical model, both loud snoring and difficulty falling asleep remained significant independent predictors of the metabolic syndrome.
"This is the first prospective study to show that a broader array of commonly reported sleep symptoms, including insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing symptoms, predict the development of the metabolic syndrome, a key risk factor for cardiovascular disease," said lead author Wendy M. Troxel, PhD, assistant professor of psychiatry and psychology at the University of Pittsburgh in Pittsburgh, Pa. "It was rather striking that the effects of difficulty falling asleep and loud snoring were largely independent of one another."
According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, metabolic syndrome is a group of obesity-related risk factors that increases an individual's risk of heart disease, diabetes and stroke. A person with at least three of these five risk factors is considered to have metabolic syndrome: excess abdominal fat, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure and high blood sugar.
Analyses of these five individual components of the metabolic syndrome revealed that loud snoring significantly predicted the development of high blood sugar (OR = 2.15) and low HDL cholesterol (1.92). Difficulty falling asleep and unrefreshing sleep did not predict any of the individual metabolic abnormalities.
Only loud snoring continued to predict the development of the metabolic syndrome after accounting for the number of metabolic abnormalities present at baseline. According to the authors, this suggests that loud snoring may be a causal risk factor cardiometabolic dysregulation.
The study involved 812 participants in Heart SCORE, an ongoing, community-based, prospective study of adults between 45 and 74 years of age. People who were classified as having the metabolic syndrome or diabetes at baseline were excluded form the study. During the three-year follow-up period, 14 percent of participants developed the metabolic syndrome.
Self-reported sleep disturbances were assessed using the Insomnia Symptom Questionnaire and the Multivariable Apnea Prediction Questionnaire. The development of the metabolic syndrome was unrelated to difficulty staying asleep and frequent awakening from sleep, which are two other insomnia symptoms that are commonly reported.
Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), an average of the combined episodes of partial reductions (hypopneas) and complete pauses (apneas) in breathing per hour of sleep, was calculated in a subset of 290 participants who wore a portable monitor that measured nasal airflow. In an analysis of this subset, loud snoring remained an independent predictor of the development of the metabolic syndrome (OR = 3.01) even after adjusting for AHI, while difficulty falling asleep was reduced to marginal statistical significance.
More information about snoring is available from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine at http://www.sleepeducation.com/Disorder.aspx?id=26.
The study was supported by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Health; and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Clinical & Translational Science Awards of the National Institutes of Health.
The peer-reviewed, scientific journal SLEEP is published monthly by the Associated Professional Sleep Societies LLC, a joint venture of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society. The AASM is a professional membership society that is the leader in setting standards and promoting excellence in sleep medicine health care, education and research.
For a copy of the study, "Sleep symptoms predict the development of the metabolic syndrome," or to arrange an interview with an AASM spokesperson, please contact Public Relations Coordinator Emilee McStay at 630-737-9700, ext. 9345, or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Emilee McStay | EurekAlert!
The Great Unknown: Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents
19.01.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung
A sudden drop in outdoor temperature increases the risk of respiratory infections
11.01.2017 | University of Gothenburg
A Swedish-German team of researchers has cleared up a key process for the artificial production of silk. With the help of the intense X-rays from DESY's...
For the first time ever, a cloud of ultra-cold atoms has been successfully created in space on board of a sounding rocket. The MAIUS mission demonstrates that quantum optical sensors can be operated even in harsh environments like space – a prerequi-site for finding answers to the most challenging questions of fundamental physics and an important innovation driver for everyday applications.
According to Albert Einstein's Equivalence Principle, all bodies are accelerated at the same rate by the Earth's gravity, regardless of their properties. This...
An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...
Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
19.01.2017 | Event News
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
24.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
24.01.2017 | Life Sciences
24.01.2017 | Health and Medicine