Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Lost Trait in Frogs Can Re-Evolve After Millions of Years

09.02.2011
A new study by a Stony Brook University professor shows that structures that have been evolutionarily lost for hundreds of millions of years can be regained. The findings are reported in the journal Evolution , in an article entitled “Re-evolution of lost mandibular teeth in frogs after more than 200 million years, and re-evaluating Dollo’s law” (presently available on-line).

John J. Wiens, Ph.D., a professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolution, studied the evolution of teeth on the lower jaw in frogs. He combined data from modern frogs, fossils and DNA sequences and utilized new statistical methods to show that frogs lost their teeth on the lower jaw more than 230 million years ago, but that these teeth re-evolved in a single frog species ( Gastrotheca guentheri ) within the past 20 million years.

This means that mandibular teeth were absent for more than 200 million years before re-evolving in Gastrotheca guentheri . Gastrotheca guentheri is a “marsupial” treefrog from Colombia and Ecuador, a species in which females carry their eggs in a pouch on their backs.

The study provides strong evidence against “Dollo’s law,” the idea that a complex trait that is lost during evolution will not re-evolve again. Dollo’s law has been controversial among evolutionary biologists. Some scientists have argued that there are now several examples where complex structures have been lost and regained, such as wings in stick insects, coiling in snail shells, and fingers and toes in lizards. Other scientists have suggested that these examples may be invalid. “The study of teeth in frogs provides very strong evidence for re-evolution of lost structures, and is unusual in showing that this re-evolution can happen after hundreds of millions of years,” Dr. Wiens said.

This study also suggests how a trait can re-evolve after such a long absence, a mechanism that Wiens calls a “loophole” in Dollo’s law. “Even though teeth are absent on the lower jaw in almost all frogs, they are generally present on the upper jaw,” Dr. Wiens said. “So the mechanisms for developing teeth are present in most frogs and did not have to re-evolve in Gastrotheca guentheri in order for teeth to re-appear on the lower jaw.” This type of "loophole" may apply to many other cases in which traits appear to re-evolve, such as in the re-evolution of lost fingers and toes in lizards, he said.

Dr. Wiens received his Bachelor’s degree from the University of Kansas in 1991 and his Ph.D. from the University of Texas at Austin in 1995. From 1995-2002 he was a curator of reptiles and amphibians at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh. He has been a professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolution at Stony Brook University since 2003. He has published more than 100 scientific papers on evolution, ecology and the biology of reptiles and amphibians.

Other recent papers include:

Wiens, J. J., C. A. Kuczynski,T. Townsend, T. W. Reeder, D. G. Mulcahy, and J. W. Sites, Jr. 2010. Combining phylogenomics and fossils in higher-level squamate reptile phylogeny: molecular data change the placement of fossil taxa. Systematic Biology 59:674–688.

Wiens, J. J., J. Sukumaran, R. A. Pyron, and R. M. Brown. 2009. Evolutionary and biogeographic origins of high tropical diversity in Old World frogs (Ranidae). Evolution 63:1217–1231.

About Stony Brook University
Part of the State University of New York system, Stony Brook University encompasses 200 buildings on 1,450 acres. In the 53 years since its founding, the University has grown tremendously, now with nearly 24,700 students and 2,200 faculty and is recognized as one of the nation’s important centers of learning and scholarship. It is a member of the prestigious Association of American Universities, and ranks among the top 100 national universities in America and among the top 50 public national universities in the country according to the 2010 U.S. News & World Report survey. One of four University Center campuses in the SUNY system, Stony Brook University co-manages Brookhaven National Laboratory, joining an elite group of universities, including Berkeley, University of Chicago, Cornell, MIT, and Princeton that run federal research and development laboratories. SBU is a driving force of the Long Island economy, with an annual economic impact of $4.65 billion, generating nearly 60,000 jobs, and accounts for nearly 4% of all economic activity in Nassau and Suffolk counties, and roughly 7.5 percent of total jobs in Suffolk County.

Office of Media Relations | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.stonybrook.edu

Further reports about: DNA sequence Ecology Evolution Gastrotheca Re-Evolve biology of reptiles frogs lizards loophole

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Europe’s Demographic Future. Where the Regions Are Heading after a Decade of Crises
10.08.2017 | Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung

nachricht Scientists reveal source of human heartbeat in 3-D
07.08.2017 | University of Manchester

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Cholesterol-lowering drugs may fight infectious disease

22.08.2017 | Health and Medicine

Meter-sized single-crystal graphene growth becomes possible

22.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

Repairing damaged hearts with self-healing heart cells

22.08.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>