Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Logging and burning cause the loss of 54 million tons of carbon a year in Amazonia

09.07.2014

Loss is equivalent to 40 percent of that caused by overall deforestation

A study conducted by scientists in Brazil and the United Kingdom has quantified the impact that selective logging, partial destruction by burning, and fragmentation resulting from the development of pastures and plantations have had on the Amazon rainforest.

In combination, these factors could be removing nearly 54 million tons of carbon from the forest each year, introduced into the atmosphere as greenhouse gases. This total represents up to 40% of the carbon loss caused by deforestation in the region.

The study, which was conducted by 10 researchers from 11 institutions in Brazil and the United Kingdom, was published in the May issue of the journal Global Change Biology.

"The impacts of timber extraction, burning and fragmentation have received little notice because all the efforts have been focused on preventing further deforestation. This attitude has resulted in tremendous progress in conserving the Brazilian Amazon, whose deforestation rate fell more than 70% over the past 10 years.

However, our study has shown that this other type of degradation is having a severe impact on the forest, with enormous quantities of previously stored carbon being lost into the atmosphere," said Erika Berenguer, researcher from the Lancaster Environment Centre at Lancaster University, in the United Kingdom, first author on the study.

According to Joice Ferreira, researcher at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa Amazônia Oriental) in Belém, state of Pará, and second author on the study, one of the reasons that this degradation has gone unnoticed is that it is difficult to monitor. "Satellite imagery allows much easier detection of areas that are totally deforested," she said.

"Our research combined satellite imagery with field study. We conducted a pixel-by-pixel assessment [each pixel in the image corresponds to an area measuring 900 meters squared (m2)] regarding what has happened over the past 20 years. In the field research, we studied 225 plots (each 3,000 m2) in two large regions in an area measuring 3 million hectares [30,000 square meters], which we used as a model to estimate what occurred in the Amazon as a whole," Ferreira explained.

The satellite images, compared every two years, have enabled researchers to put together an extensive overview of the degradation of the forest along a 20-year timeline. The field research assessed scarring from burning, timber extraction and other disturbances. The combination of the two investigations resulted in the estimate of carbon stock available today.

Two regions were studied in loco: Santarém and Paragominas, in the eastern part of the Amazon region, both under strong degradation pressures. Two hundred twenty-five areas were investigated in these two regions.

"We collected data from more than 70,000 trees and took more than 5,000 samples of soil, dead wood and other components of what is known as carbon stock. It was the largest study conducted to date regarding carbon loss from tropical forests due to selective logging and wildfires," Ferreira said.

According to her, the research included four of the five functionally distinct carbon pools whose study is recommended by the United Nations (UN) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): aboveground biomass (live plants), dead organic matter, leaf litter (layer that contains a combination of fragments of leaves, branches and other decomposing organic matter) and soil (up to 30 centimeters (cm) in depth). "The only thing we didn't measure was the carbon stock in the roots," she said.

For comparative purposes, five categories of forest were considered: primary (totally intact) forest; forest affected by logging; forest affected by fires; forest affected by selective logging and fires; and secondary forests (regenerating after complete clearance).

The forests that were disturbed by logging or fire had from 18% to 57% less carbon than primary forests. One area of primary forest ended up having more than 300 tons of carbon per hectare, while areas of forest that had been burned or subjected to timber extraction had, at most, 200 tons per hectare and, on average, less than 100 tons of carbon per hectare.

In addition to the researchers already mentioned, the Global Change Biology article was co-authored by Toby Alan Gardner (University of Cambridge and the Stockholm Environment Institute), Carlos Eduardo Cerri and Mariana Durigan (Luis de Queiroz College of Agriculture/USP), Luiz Eduardo Oliveira e Cruz de Aragão (National Institute for Space Research and the University of Exeter), Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira Junior (Embrapa Amazônia Oriental) and Ima Célia Guimarães Vieira (Emílio Goeldi Museum of Pará).

Samuel Antenor | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
http://www.fapesp.br/

Further reports about: Change Environment atmosphere degradation extraction forests hectare timber

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Real-time feedback helps save energy and water
08.02.2017 | Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

nachricht The Great Unknown: Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents
19.01.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Safe glide at total engine failure with ELA-inside

On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded after a glide flight with an Airbus A320 in ditching on the Hudson River. All 155 people on board were saved.

On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded...

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Existence of a new quasiparticle demonstrated

28.02.2017 | Materials Sciences

Sustainable ceramics without a kiln

28.02.2017 | Materials Sciences

Biofuel produced by microalgae

28.02.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>