"Substances that appear at first glance to be harmless can cause allergic reactions since skin enzymes may help to form new, allergenic substances from them, giving rise to dermatitis and other skin problems. This is the case for isothiocyanates, which are formed on the skin following repeated contact with rubber", says Kristin Samuelsson of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Gothenburg.
Around one in five adults in Europe suffers from contact allergy against one or several chemical substances to which they are exposed. The most common allergy is against nickel, while many people suffer from contact allergy against, for example, perfume. A substance must bind to proteins in the skin before it can give rise to an allergy. This means that substances must be chemically reactive, if they are to cause an allergic reaction. Isothiocyanates are potent contact allergens that occur naturally in vegetables. They are used also in technical products.
Kristin Samuelsson has used fluorescent isothiocyanates to study how allergenic substances are absorbed by the skin and lymph nodes, after being applied to the skin. The results show that the reactive isothiocyanates are mainly restricted to the outermost layer of skin (known as the "stratum corneum"), which consists of dead cells. Even so, the isothiocyanates that were tested were potent allergens.
Diphenylthiourea is a substance that is used in the production of rubber, including the neoprene rubber that is used in mouse mats, wetsuits, knee protectors and other products with which we have close and frequent contact. Isothiocyanates are among the substances that are formed from diphenylthiourea when it is applied to skin.
The number of patients with reported allergies against neoprene rubber is not actually very high, but this may be because it is difficult to confirm such allergies. The results presented in the thesis have led to the initiation of a new study at the Skin Clinic, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, in which patients with suspected allergy against neoprene rubber will be tested using the isothiocyanate that is formed in the skin. Testing with the active allergen increases the chances of detecting cases of rubber allergy, and thus providing the appropriate treatment and advice for the patients. Identifying allergenic substances in common products will also make it possible to reduce the exposure of the general population to such substances.
The thesis: Isothiocyanates as skin sensitizers. Bioactivation and distributor in skin and draining lymph nodes has been successfully defended.
The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change
17.11.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig
Win-win strategies for climate and food security
02.10.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2017 | Life Sciences