Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Intervention lowered obesity rate in youth at high diabetes risk

28.06.2010
Number of overweight and obese youth fell in program and comparison schools

An intervention in middle schools lowered the obesity rate in students at highest risk for type 2 diabetes, those who started out overweight or obese in sixth grade, an NIH-funded study has found. However, schools that implemented the program did not differ from comparison schools in the study's primary outcome—the prevalence of overweight and obesity combined—which had declined 4 percent in both groups of schools by the end of the three-year study.

The goal of the HEALTHY Study was to determine whether changes in school food services; longer, more intense periods of physical education; and classroom activities to promote behavior change would lower risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Conducted from the beginning of the sixth grade to the end of the eighth, the study involved 4,600 students attending 42 middle schools in seven areas of the country. Schools were randomly assigned to implement the program or serve as a comparison school.

"The study shows that a school-based program can help lower obesity and certain risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth at high risk for the disease," said Griffin P. Rodgers, M.D., director of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK).

Researchers were surprised to find that the number of overweight and obese students had declined in comparison schools as well as program schools. "The decline in the number of overweight and obese children in comparison schools was a welcome but unexpected finding," said study chair and lead author Gary D. Foster, Ph.D., of Temple University, Philadelphia. "Future analyses will try to clarify the reasons for the improvement in these schools. For example, we'll look at the comparison schools to see if they made healthy changes to the school environment because of increased awareness about the problem of childhood obesity."

The intervention significantly lowered the obesity rate among children whose body mass index, or BMI, was initially at the 85th percentile or more. In children, overweight is defined as a BMI at the 85th to 94th percentile for their age and sex; obesity is defined as a BMI at the 95th percentile or more. BMI is a measurement of weight in relation to height.

Students in program schools who were overweight or obese in the sixth grade had 21 percent lower odds of being obese by the end of the eighth grade compared with students in control schools. Nationally, about one-third of children are overweight or obese, but in schools participating in the study, half of students were overweight or obese in sixth grade.

"Decreasing the number of obese children can have profound effects on diabetes risk in young people, since obese youth are at greatest risk of metabolic abnormalities," Foster said.

At the end of the study, 35 percent of children in both intervention and comparison schools with a BMI in the 95th percentile or greater had high insulin readings, compared with 2 percent of students whose BMI was less than the 85th percentile.

The program also lowered average levels of fasting insulin and the number of students with a waist at or over the 90th percentile in students in intervention schools compared with comparison schools. A high blood level of insulin after an overnight fast and a large waist increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, independent of body weight. However, the two groups did not differ in mean glucose levels or the percentage of students with elevated fasting glucose. A higher-than-normal level of fasting blood sugar indicates a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

The results of the HEALTHY Study appear online in the New England Journal of Medicine June 27, 2010, and coincide with presentation of the results at the 70th annual scientific sessions of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) in Orlando, Fla. The study was funded by the NIDDK, a part of the National Institutes of Health, and the ADA.

"We will only stop the diabetes epidemic if we continue to test innovative approaches to help children make healthy lifestyle choices," said Richard M. Bergenstal, M.D., president, Medicine and Science, ADA. "The HEALTHY Study shows us an effective approach that can be implemented to improve the outcomes of a large number of youth at very high risk of diabetes."

Because type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects minorities and low-income people, the study was conducted in schools with a high enrollment of minority children (54 percent Hispanic and 18 percent African-American) and youth from low-income families. About 75 percent of students were eligible for free or reduced-price meals.

At the beginning of sixth grade, many students had signs of high diabetes risk. Nearly half were overweight or obese, 16 percent had elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and nearly 7 percent had elevated fasting insulin levels. At the end of the eighth grade, students were tested for diabetes risk factors, including fasting blood levels of glucose, insulin, and lipids as well as height, weight, blood pressure, fitness level, and waist circumference.

The program consisted of

Healthier choices in the cafeteria, snack bars, class events, and vending machines (lower fat, higher fiber foods; more fruits and vegetables; and an emphasis on water, low-fat milk, and drinks with no added sugar)

Longer, more intense periods of physical activity, defined as achieving a heart rate of at least 130 beats per minute, with a target of 150 minutes or more over a 10-day period

Activities and awareness campaigns that promoted long-term healthy behaviors.

The study was conducted by researchers at the following centers:

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas
University of California, Irvine
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Oregon Health and Science University, Portland
Temple University, Philadelphia
University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
George Washington University, Washington, D.C. (Coordinating Center)
About 24 million people in the United States have diabetes. It is the main cause of kidney failure, limb amputations, new onset blindness in adults and a major cause of heart disease and stroke. The longer a person has diabetes, the greater the chances of developing serious damage to the eyes, nerves, heart, kidneys, and blood vessels.

Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for up to 95 percent of all diabetes cases, becomes more common with increasing age. The disease is strongly associated with obesity, inactivity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, and racial or ethnic background. The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes has more than doubled in the last 30 years, due in large part to the upsurge in obesity. For more information about diabetes, visit http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/index.htm.

More than two-thirds of U.S. adults age 20 and older are overweight or obese. Among youth 2 to 19 years old, about one-third have a BMI at or above the 85th percentile for their age. Once seen only in adults, type 2 diabetes has been rising steadily in youth. The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the NIH, is examining diabetes rates in youth. According to the SEARCH Study, from 2002 to 2005

About 3,700 youth from less than one year of age to 19 years old were newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes annually

The rate of new type 2 diabetes cases in youth ages 10 to 19 years was 5.3 per 100,000, with higher rates in minority populations.

The NIH sponsors We Can! Ways to Enhance Children's Activity and Nutrition— a program to prevent childhood obesity that encourages parents and children to adopt healthy eating habits, increase physical activity, and reduce leisure "screen time" to prevent childhood obesity. We Can! materials, including fact sheets, brochures and curricula for adults and children, are available at http://wecan.nhlbi.nih.gov or by calling toll-free 1-866-35-WECAN.

For media inquiries during ADA's scientific meetings (June 25-29), call the ADA press office at (407) 685-4010. After the meetings, contact Renee Cree (215) 204-6522 or rencree@temple.edu to interview Dr. Gary Foster. To interview an NIDDK spokesperson, contact (301) 496-3583 or e-mail NIDDKMedia@mail.nih.gov.

NIDDK, part of the NIH, conducts and supports basic and clinical research and research training on some of the most common, severe and disabling conditions affecting Americans. The Institute's research interests include diabetes and other endocrine and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases, nutrition, and obesity; and kidney, urologic and hematologic diseases. For more information, visit www.niddk.nih.gov.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) — The Nation's Medical Research Agency — includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is the primary federal agency for conducting and supporting basic, clinical and translational medical research, and it investigates the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.

Resources:

Information about the HEALTHY Study (NCT00458029) can be found at www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Questions and Answers about the HEALTHY Study http://www2.niddk.nih.gov/Research/ClinicalResearch/HEALTHY/QandA.htm
HEALTHY Study website http://www.healthystudy.org/
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/
National Diabetes Education Program http://ndep.nih.gov/
"Solving the Problem of Childhood Obesity within a Generation." White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity: Report to the President http://www.letsmove.gov/taskforce_childhoodobesityrpt.html

"Let's Move," First Lady Michelle Obama's campaign to end the childhood obesity epidemic in a generation http://www.letsmove.gov/

Joan Chamberlain | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.nih.gov

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)

nachricht Reusable carbon nanotubes could be the water filter of the future, says RIT study
30.03.2017 | Rochester Institute of Technology

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Strathclyde-led research develops world's highest gain high-power laser amplifier

The world's highest gain high power laser amplifier - by many orders of magnitude - has been developed in research led at the University of Strathclyde.

The researchers demonstrated the feasibility of using plasma to amplify short laser pulses of picojoule-level energy up to 100 millijoules, which is a 'gain'...

Im Focus: Can the immune system be boosted against Staphylococcus aureus by delivery of messenger RNA?

Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New insights into the ancestors of all complex life

29.05.2017 | Earth Sciences

New photocatalyst speeds up the conversion of carbon dioxide into chemical resources

29.05.2017 | Life Sciences

NASA's SDO sees partial eclipse in space

29.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>