FANTOM, or Functional Annotation of the Mammalian cDNA, which is organized by RIKEN Omics Science Center (OSC), has leading scientists in Australia, Switzerland, Norway, South Africa, Sweden, Canada, Denmark, Italy, Germany, Singapore, UK, and the United States. The consortium has been providing the scientific community with extensive databases on the mammalian genome that describe molecular function, biology, and cell components.
FANTOM has become a world authority on the mammalian transcriptome, the set of all messenger RNA showing active genetic expression at one point in time. Other major discoveries are that approximately 70% of the genome is transcribed and that more than half of the expressed genes are likely non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that do not code proteins; thus, the prevailing theory that only 2% of the genome is transcribed into mRNA coding to proteins needed to be reexamined. Now in its fourth stage, FANTOM4, led by OSC’s Dr. Yoshihide Hayashizaki, has in over 3 years of laborious research developed a novel technology for producing a genome-wide promoter expression profile, established a mathematical scheme for describing the data obtained, and extracted key genomic elements that play dominant roles in the maintenance of cellular conditions.
In the current research, OSC has broadened its original technology CAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) and created deepCAGE, which takes advantage of next-generation sequencing to both precisely identify transcription start sites genome wide as well as to quantify the expression of each start site. The deepCAGE technology was applied to a differentiating acute myeloid leukemia cell line (ACL) to provide genome-wide time course dynamics of expression at the level of individual promoters — specific sequences on the DNA providing binding sites for RNA polymerase and the protein transcription factors that recruit them. The consortium built a quantitative model of the genome-wide gene expression dynamics that identified the key regulator motifs driving the differentiation, the time-dependent activities of the transcription regulators binding the motifs, and the genome-wide target promoters of each motif.
Validation of the model was performed by knocking down each transcription factor with small interfering RNAs. This first report of a large-scale gene network based on experimental data set is certain to generate much excitement in the scientific community. This information is also important for life science and medical researchers who are trying to uncover the processes by which cells undergo conversion or become cancerous, and for those attempting to determine how to control the growth and differentiation of stem cells and ensure their safety for use in regenerative medicine. Dr. Harukazu Suzuki, the scientific coordinator of the consortium, had this to say, “We are proud that we have created groundbreaking research in understanding more about how genes regulate cells at the molecular level and we want to acknowledge all consortium members for their great contribution to the research effort.”
The FANTOM consortium has also expanded earlier discoveries of transcriptional complexity by exploring repetitive elements found throughout mammalian genomes with DeepCAGE. These elements, which constitute up to half of the genome, have been generally considered to be junk or parasitic DNA. However, the team has found that the repetitive elements are broadly expressed and 6 to 30% of mouse and human mRNAs are derived from repetitive element promoters. These RNAs are often tissue-specific and dynamically controlled, and control the output of the genome through a variety of mechanisms. The FANTOM4 collaborators have also identified yet another type of short RNA, referred to as tiRNA (transcription initiation RNA) or tiny RNAs, in the human, chicken, and Drosphilia. They are about 18 nucleotides (nt) in length and are found within -60 to +120 nt of transcription start sites and may actually be widespread in metazoans (animals). A BioMed Central Thematic Series features even more FANTOM 4 research papers in Genome Biology and several BMC journals.Contact:
Keiko Iwano | Research asia research news
Diagnoses: When Are Several Opinions Better Than One?
19.07.2016 | Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung
High in calories and low in nutrients when adolescents share pictures of food online
07.04.2016 | University of Gothenburg
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.
Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine
21.10.2016 | Information Technology
21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences