The introduction of urban railways is one of the most effective ways to deal with traffic problems in large cities. However, in the vicinity of railways, day-by-day vibrations from trains may cause discomfort to people, the malfunctioning of sensitive equipment, and even damage to old buildings, and railways therefore have serious environmental problems. The development of urban railways is now limited by such environmental vibrations.
Effective vibration-reduction technologies rely on a good understanding of the excitation source that generates the vibrations. "In recent years, substantial progress has been made in modeling the train–track–ground interaction, and consensus has been reached that the excitation source is the moving of constant loads and uneven contact between wheels and rails," according to background information in the article. "Nevertheless, the contact can hardly be measured directively, so its amplitude and frequency contents are not completely understood, and its quantitative expression remains a problem for further research to address.
Recently, a research group led by Prof. Tao Xiaxin at Harbin Institute of Technology, China, has made a breakthrough in revealing the excitation mechanism. Based on an inversion study in the frequency and wave-number domain, Dr. Wang Futong, a key research member in the group, has found that high-frequency contents are predominant in the excitation. A power spectral density function (PSD) of uneven wheel–rail contact, rather than the track PSD, was suggested to describe the random characteristics of the excitation source. An inversion strategy was then established to obtain the source function from vibration data recorded by an observation array at the ground surface. The wheel–rail unevenness PSD, being the source function for the No. 13 Beijing urban railway, was obtained by the inversion strategy. The result indicated that the source function properly described the track unevenness in the range of wavelengths over 1.2 m, and showed wheel irregularities in the range of wavelengths shorter than 1.2 m.
The researchers found that, in the range of short wavelengths under 1.2 m, the wheel–rail PSD maintained a value higher than the 6th class of the track PSD suggested by the Federal Railway Administration. As urban trains do not travel particularly quickly, this short wavelength range exactly corresponds to the main frequency band of environmental vibrations; i.e., the frequency components of the vibrations stem mainly from that range of uneven excitation. Taking account of only moving constant loads and track unevenness could result in a severe underestimation of the environmental vibrations.
"Whereas the track spectrum reflects only the evenness of the track, the wheel–rail spectrum expresses both the track unevenness and the irregularities of wheels, and it is therefore more suitable to be used as the source function of urban railway traffic," the researchers write. "It is also shown that inversion of the exciting source according to observed ground vibrations is an effective way to detect quantitatively the combined wheel–rail unevenness."
The research has been supported by the National Natural Scientific Foundation of China, under contract No. 50538030.
For more information, please see the original article.
Wang Futong, Tao Xiaxin, Zheng Xin. Inversion of Excitation Source in Ground Vibration from Urban Railway Traffic. Sci China Tech Sci, 55: 950-959, doi: 10.1007/s11431-011-4665-9
WANG Futong | EurekAlert!
Rutgers-led innovation could spur faster, cheaper, nano-based manufacturing
14.02.2018 | Rutgers University
New study from the University of Halle: How climate change alters plant growth
12.01.2018 | Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg
A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. This has made it possible to observe the interaction of multiple photons in a single such pulse with electrons in the inner orbital shell of an atom.
In order to observe the ultrafast electron motion in the inner shells of atoms with short light pulses, the pulses must not only be ultrashort, but very...
A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal.
By measuring the highly unusual atomic trajectories under extreme electromagnetic transients, the MPSD group could reconstruct how rigid the atomic bonds are...
Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...
For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.
In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
15.02.2018 | Event News
13.02.2018 | Event News
12.02.2018 | Event News
23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
23.02.2018 | Health and Medicine
23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy