Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Impact of whooping cough vaccination revealed

23.04.2014

Comprehensive study shows effect of vaccination on spread and diversification of Bordetella pertussis

The most comprehensive study to date of the family of bacteria that causes whooping cough points to more effective vaccine strategies and reveals surprising findings about the bacteria's origin and evolution. The new results could alter public health strategies to control this respiratory disease, which kills 195,000 children worldwide each year.

Genomic analysis of 343 strains of the Bordetella pertussis bacteria from around the world collected over the last 100 years illustrates how vaccination has shaped its evolution. Since its introduction across the globe between 1940 and 1960, vaccination has dramatically reduced rates of infection and loss of life from whooping cough. However, strategies used to date have not completely eradicated strains of the bacteria, instead leading to an increase in diversity.

"The scale of this study and the detailed family history of B. pertussis we are able to draw from it illustrate the journey this bacterium has taken since its emergence," says Dr Simon Harris, a first author at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "By seeing how an organism escapes vaccination we can build better strategies to control and eradicate it."

While researchers suspect that the diversity may be the result of lineages of the bacteria persisting in unvaccinated populations, resurgence of B. pertussis has also been observed between 2010 and 2012 in highly vaccinated populations such as Australia, the Netherlands, the UK and the USA. One reason could be the widespread switch to the use of acellular vaccines, which, though better tolerated than the original whole-cell vaccines, tend to produce more rapidly-waning immunity.

"To stem the rise of whooping cough without returning to whole-cell vaccines, which can be reactogenic, we need to employ strategic vaccination," says Dr Marieke Bart, a first author from the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, the Netherlands. "This could include vaccinating mothers in pregnancy so babies are born with some level of protection and cocooning a newborn by vaccinating adults around it. In the long run, however, we need better pertussis vaccines."

As well as suggesting strategies for control in the future, the study revealed new findings about B. pertussis' past. Genetic analysis of the strains shows that whooping cough emerged and spread rapidly in humans in the late Middle Ages, around 500 years ago, not in the Neolithic period more than 10,000 years ago, as previously thought.

This finding resolves a puzzle that had troubled scientists for some time: despite characteristic symptoms and a high rate of mortality in unvaccinated children, records of whooping cough are entirely absent from ancient European literature. This new analysis, which places the emergence and rapid global spread of the infection in the human population within the last 500 years, is consistent with historical records that first identify the disease in Paris in 1578. The only earlier reference to a disease with similar symptoms has been found in a Korean medical textbook from the 15th Century.

"Over the past five years or so it has become clear that we have got our dating in bacteriology wrong," says Professor Julian Parkhill, a senior group leader at the Sanger Institute and a senior author of the study. "The mutation rate we were working with is probably two orders of magnitude out, so we thought the last common ancestor of these modern B. pertussis strains was tens of thousands of years old when, in fact, it is much younger than that."

###

Notes to Editors

Publication Details

Marieke J Bart et al (2014) Global population structure and evolution of Bordetella pertussis and their relationship with vaccination. mBio DOI:10.1128/mBio.01074-14

Funding

This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust (grant number 098051), the RIVM (SOR project S/230446/01/BV), and the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia.

Participating Centres

A full list of participating centres can be found on the paper.

Selected Websites

The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute is one of the world's leading genome centres. Through its ability to conduct research at scale, it is able to engage in bold and long-term exploratory projects that are designed to influence and empower medical science globally. Institute research findings, generated through its own research programmes and through its leading role in international consortia, are being used to develop new diagnostics and treatments for human disease.
http://www.sanger.ac.uk

The Wellcome Trust is a global charitable foundation dedicated to achieving extraordinary improvements in human and animal health. We support the brightest minds in biomedical research and the medical humanities. Our breadth of support includes public engagement, education and the application of research to improve health. We are independent of both political and commercial interests.
http://www.wellcome.ac.uk

Contact details

Don Powell Media Manager
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK
Tel +44 (0)1223 496 928
Mobile +44 (0)7753 7753 97
Email press.office@sanger.ac.uk

Mary Clarke | Eurek Alert!

Further reports about: Bordetella pertussis bacteria populations strains strategies symptoms vaccination vaccines

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Win-win strategies for climate and food security
02.10.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

nachricht The personality factor: How to foster the sharing of research data
06.09.2017 | ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>