Researchers at the University of Illinois are making strides in devising dietary interventions to combat these infections through advanced DNA pyrosequencing technology.
This new method of DNA sequencing has helped researchers uncover the phylogeny or "who's there" in a healthy dog's gut. Their goal was to obtain a standard that could be used as a comparison to diseased states in the future.
"It's a first step toward making progress in our understanding of how diet affects gastrointestinal infections," said Kelly Swanson, U of I associate professor of animal science. "Dogs do not rely heavily on microbial fermentation as it pertains to energy requirements, but a balanced and stable microbiota is critical for maintaining gastrointestinal health."
Up until now scientists could only culture a small percentage of the bacteria in a dog's gut and due to technological limitations, they couldn't determine the complete phylogeny.
More than 80,000 DNA sequences were evaluated in the first study to reveal that the highest number of bacteria present in the gut were Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes. Fusobacteria, while not as common, were also among the highest number of bacteria found.
"Often we don't know if an altered bacterial community is the cause of disease or the effect of disease," he said. "We also don't know if it's one species or multiple species working together to create problems for the dog's intestinal health."
In a follow-up study, using approximately one million DNA sequences, their team identified the metabolic pathways that exist in intestinal bacteria of healthy animals including nutrient metabolism, virulence, and stress response, Swanson said. They also compared the phylogeny of a dog's intestine to that of humans, mice and chickens to determine similarities and differences between species.
Swanson and his teammates are interested in continuing to learn how dietary intervention, pharmaceuticals and age affect microbial populations. In addition, most pet dogs in developed countries are now treated as family, with many not only living in the home, but also eating, sleeping and playing with their owners. This close proximity has relevance in regards to zoonotic disease and the direct link between human and dog illness.
"Phylogenetic characterization of fecal microbial communities of dogs fed diets with or without supplemental dietary fiber using 454 pyrosequencing" was published in PLoS ONE. Researchers include Ingmar Middelbos, Brittany Vester Boler, Ani Qu, Bryan White, George Fahey and Swanson, all of the U of I. Funding was provided by the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station.
"Phylogenetic and gene-centric metagenomics of the canine intestinal microbiome reveals similarities with humans and mice" was published in The ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology. Researchers include Scot Dowd of Research and Testing Laboratory; Jan Suchodolski of Texas A& M University; Ingmar Middelbos, Brittany Vester Boler, Kathleen Barry, Isaac Cann, Bryan White, George Fahey and Swanson of the U of I; Karen Nelson and Manolito Torralba of the J. Craig Venter Institute; and Bernard Henrissat and Pedro Coutinho of the Universites Aix-Marseille I and II in France. Funding was provided by the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station.
Jennifer Shike | EurekAlert!
A sudden drop in outdoor temperature increases the risk of respiratory infections
11.01.2017 | University of Gothenburg
Urbanization to convert 300,000 km2 of prime croplands
27.12.2016 | Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC) gGmbH
Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
05.01.2017 | Event News
18.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
18.01.2017 | Materials Sciences
18.01.2017 | Life Sciences