Women aged 50 to 76 who take estrogen plus progestin may have an increased risk of lung cancer, according to a new study published in the pre-print online edition of the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Although the risk is "duration-dependent," with women taking HRT for 10-plus years at greatest risk of developing lung cancer, an acceptable length of HRT has yet to be determined, the researchers report.
While the risk of developing lung cancer for women using estrogen plus progestin HRT 10 years or longer was approximately 50 percent more than women not using HRT, this risk is actually quite small compared to the risk from smoking.
"Although HRT use has declined and is not recommended except for short-term treatment of menopausal symptoms, our results indicate millions of women may remain at risk of developing lung cancer," said Chris Slatore, M.D., principal investigator and an assistant professor of medicine (pulmonary and critical care medicine) in the Oregon Health & Science University School of Medicine, Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center; and a member of the OHSU Knight Cancer Institute.
To conduct this research, Slatore and colleagues reviewed data collected from 2000 to 2002 in the Vitamins and Lifestyle Study in Washington state. They identified 36,588 peri- and postmenopausal participants aged 50 to 76 who met their study criteria and followed them for six years using the Seattle-Puget Sound Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results cancer registry.
At the end of the observation period, December 31, 2007, 344 of the participants had developed lung cancer. After adjusting for smoking, age and other factors that affect the risk of lung cancer, the researchers determined the use of estrogen and progestin for 10 or more years was associated with increased risk for lung cancer compared with no use of HRT. They also found duration of use was associated with an advanced stage of cancer at diagnosis.
Although the mechanisms underlying the association between HRT and lung cancer are still unknown, the researchers report that genetic and environment interactions likely play a role. They also suggest that estrogen plus progestin may lead to more aggressive disease or mask early symptoms, or HRT users may be less likely to see or receive medical care in a timely fashion.
"These findings may be useful in counseling women about their risk of developing lung cancer and prompt further research into the mechanisms underlying HRT and increased lung cancer risk," said Slatore.
Other researchers who contributed to the study include: Jason W. Chien, M.D., Seattle Cancer Care Alliance; David H. Au, M.D., VA Puget Sound Health Care System; Jessie A. Satia, Ph.D., University of North Carolina; and Emily White, Ph.D., University of Washington.
The study was supported by the CHEST Foundation of the American College of Chest Physicians and the LUNGevity Foundation to C.G.S; the National Institutes of Health; the Department of Veterans Affairs; Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, Ore.; and Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Wash.
About the OHSU Knight Cancer Institute (www.ohsu.edu/cancer)
With the latest treatments, technologies, hundreds of research studies and approximately 400 clinical trials, the OHSU Knight Cancer Institute is the only cancer center between Sacramento and Seattle designated by the National Cancer Institute — an honor earned only by the nation's top cancer centers. The honor is shared among the more than 650 doctors, nurses, scientists and staff who work together at the OHSU Knight Cancer Institute to reduce the impact of cancer.
About Oregon Health & Science University
Oregon Health & Science University is the state's only health and research university and Oregon's only academic health center. OHSU is Portland's largest employer and the fourth largest in Oregon (excluding government). OHSU's size contributes to its ability to provide many services and community support activities not found anywhere else in the state. It serves patients from every corner of the state, and is a conduit for learning for more than 3,400 students and trainees. OHSU is the source of more than 200 community outreach programs that bring health and education services to every county in the state.
Tamara Hargens-Bradley | EurekAlert!
Real-time feedback helps save energy and water
08.02.2017 | Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg
The Great Unknown: Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents
19.01.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung
In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport
Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...
The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.
The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...
Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...
Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".
Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...
13.02.2017 | Event News
10.02.2017 | Event News
09.02.2017 | Event News
17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering
17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering
17.02.2017 | Health and Medicine