Vaccination against the hepatitis A virus (HAV) in children two years of age and younger remains effective for at least ten years, according to new research available in the August issue of Hepatology, a journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD). The study found that any transfer of the mother's HAV antibodies does not lower the child's immune response to the vaccine.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 1.4 million cases of HAV occur worldwide each year. HAV affects the liver and typically occurs in areas with poor sanitation where ingestion of contaminated food or water can transmit the virus. In the U.S., HAV cases have decreased by 90% in the past 20 years, with roughly 20,000 new cases reported each year according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Experts attribute the decline in HAV cases in the U.S. to routine vaccination of children 12 to 18 months.
According to lead author Dr. Umid Sharapov, an epidemiologist with the CDC and his coauthors, this is the first study to examine the effectiveness of a two-dose inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in children younger than two years of age over a ten-year period. In addition, the researchers investigated whether maternal anti-HAV antibody transfer to their children impacts the vaccine protection against HAV.
With parental consent, researchers enrolled full-term infants who were healthy at six-months of age. Mothers were tested for total antibody to HAV. The 197 infants and toddlers were broken into three age groups: group one-infants 6 to 12 months; group two-toddlers between 12 and 18 months; and group three-toddlers 15 to 21 months of age. Each group was randomized by maternal anti-HAV status. HAV antibody levels were measured at one and six months, and additional follow-up took place at three, five, seven and ten years after the second dose of hepatitis A vaccine.
At one month following the second dose of the hepatitis A vaccine children in all groups showed signs of protection from the virus. At the ten-year follow-up most children retained anti-HAV protection. In the first group, 7% and 11% of children born to mother's without and with antibodies to the HAV virus, did not retain HAV protection from vaccination, respectively. Additionally, 4% of group three children born to anti-HAV negative mothers lost HAV protection.
"Our study demonstrates that seropositivity to hepatitis A persists for at least ten years after primary vaccination with two-dose inactivated HAV vaccine when administered to children at ages 12 months and older, regardless of their mothers' anti-HAV status," concludes Dr. Sharapov. "These findings support current CDC/ACIP guidelines for routine administration of two doses of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine to all children in the U.S. beginning at the age of 12 months." The authors point out that a future booster dose may be necessary to maintain protection against HAV and they will continue follow-up participants into their teens to monitor benefit of the initial immunization.
Full citation: "Persistence of Hepatitis A Vaccine Induced Seropositivity in Infants and Young Children by Maternal Antibody Status: 10-Year Follow-Up." Umid M. Sharapov, Lisa R. Bulkow, Susan E. Negus, Philip R. Spradling, Chriss Homan, Jan Drobeniuc, Michael Bruce, Saleem Kamili, Dale J. Hu, Brian J. McMahon. Hepatology; DOI: 10.1002/hep.25687); Print Issue Date: August, 2012. URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hep.25687/abstract
Author Contact: To arrange an interview with Dr. Sharapov, please contact the news media team at CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention at 404-639-8895 or NCHHSTPMediaTeam@cdc.gov.
This study is published in Hepatology. Media wishing to receive a PDF of this article may contact email@example.com .
About the Journal: Hepatology is the premier publication in the field of liver disease, publishing original, peer-reviewed articles concerning all aspects of liver structure, function and disease. Each month, the distinguished Editorial Board monitors and selects only the best articles on subjects such as immunology, chronic hepatitis, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, genetic and metabolic liver diseases and their complications, liver cancer, and drug metabolism. Hepatology is published on is published by Wiley on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD). For more information, please visit http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/hep.
Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of information and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. Wiley and its acquired companies have published the works of more than 450 Nobel laureates in all categories: Literature, Economics, Physiology or Medicine, Physics, Chemistry, and Peace.
Our core businesses publish scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly journals, encyclopedias, books, and online products and services; professional/trade books, subscription products, training materials, and online applications and Web sites; and educational materials for undergraduate and graduate students and lifelong learners. Wiley's global headquarters are located in Hoboken, New Jersey, with operations in the U.S., Europe, Asia, Canada, and Australia. The Company's Web site can be accessed at http://www.wiley.com. The Company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbols JWa and JWb.
Dawn Peters | EurekAlert!
Multi-year study finds 'hotspots' of ammonia over world's major agricultural areas
17.03.2017 | University of Maryland
Diabetes Drug May Improve Bone Fat-induced Defects of Fracture Healing
17.03.2017 | Deutsches Institut für Ernährungsforschung Potsdam-Rehbrücke
The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.
To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
28.03.2017 | Life Sciences
28.03.2017 | Information Technology
28.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy