Scientists have long debated whether human head and body lice are the same or different species. The head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) is a persistent nuisance, clinging to and laying its eggs in the hair, digging its mouthparts into the scalp and feeding on blood several times a day.
The body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) tends to be larger than its cranial counterpart, and is a more dangerous parasite. It lays its eggs on clothing, takes bigger blood meals, and can transmit relapsing fever, trench fever and epidemic typhus to its human host.
Previous studies have found that even when they are both present on the same host, head and body lice don’t stray into each other’s territories. They don’t breed with one another in the wild, but they have been shown to successfully reproduce under specific laboratory conditions. The presence of head lice has little to do with human hygiene, but body lice seem to appear out of nowhere when hygiene suffers – in times of war or economic hardship, for example.
In the new study, researchers compared the number and sequences of all of the protein-coding genes expressed at every stage of the head and body louse life cycles.
“We were interested in understanding potentially how closely related head lice and body lice are,” said University of Illinois entomology professor Barry Pittendrigh, who led the study. “Do they have the same number of genes? Do those genes look very similar or are they very different? What we found is that these two organisms are extremely similar in terms of their protein-coding genes.”
The researchers also exposed the lice to a variety of environmental conditions to capture the greatest variety of gene activity.
“As body lice transmit diseases and head lice don’t, this system provides a unique opportunity to understand subtle changes that allow body lice to transmit human diseases,” said graduate student Brett Olds, who conducted the genetic analysis.
The study team also included Illinois animal biology professor Kenneth Paige; entomology graduate students Laura Steele and Tolulope Agunbiade; and S.H. Lee, from the department of agricultural biotechnology at Seoul National University. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health supported this research.Editor’s notes: To reach Barry Pittendrigh, email email@example.com
Diana Yates | University of Illinois
Rutgers-led innovation could spur faster, cheaper, nano-based manufacturing
14.02.2018 | Rutgers University
New study from the University of Halle: How climate change alters plant growth
12.01.2018 | Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg
An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti-cancer protein. The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. The researchers led by Prof. Michael N. Hall from the Biozentrum, University of Basel, report in “Nature” that LHPP can also serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer.
The incidence of liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma, is steadily increasing. In the last twenty years, the number of cases has almost doubled...
In just a few weeks from now, the Chinese space station Tiangong-1 will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere where it will to a large extent burn up. It is possible that some debris will reach the Earth's surface. Tiangong-1 is orbiting the Earth uncontrolled at a speed of approx. 29,000 km/h.Currently the prognosis relating to the time of impact currently lies within a window of several days. The scientists at Fraunhofer FHR have already been monitoring Tiangong-1 for a number of weeks with their TIRA system, one of the most powerful space observation radars in the world, with a view to supporting the German Space Situational Awareness Center and the ESA with their re-entry forecasts.
Following the loss of radio contact with Tiangong-1 in 2016 and due to the low orbital height, it is now inevitable that the Chinese space station will...
Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, provider of research and development services for OLED lighting solutions, announces the founding of the “OLED Licht Forum” and presents latest OLED design and lighting solutions during light+building, from March 18th – 23rd, 2018 in Frankfurt a.M./Germany, at booth no. F91 in Hall 4.0.
They are united in their passion for OLED (organic light emitting diodes) lighting with all of its unique facets and application possibilities. Thus experts in...
A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...
For the first time, an interdisciplinary team from the University of Basel has succeeded in integrating artificial organelles into the cells of live zebrafish embryos. This innovative approach using artificial organelles as cellular implants offers new potential in treating a range of diseases, as the authors report in an article published in Nature Communications.
In the cells of higher organisms, organelles such as the nucleus or mitochondria perform a range of complex functions necessary for life. In the networks of...
19.03.2018 | Event News
16.03.2018 | Event News
13.03.2018 | Event News
22.03.2018 | Materials Sciences
22.03.2018 | Health and Medicine
22.03.2018 | Earth Sciences