The research conducted at ICAP at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health and the Semel Institute of Neuroscience and Human Behavior at University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA) is the first to predict the effect of the expansion of such treatment in couples on the HIV epidemic in certain African countries.
In "Modeling the Impact on the HIV Epidemic of Treating Discordant Couples with Antiretrovirals to Prevent Transmission," authors Wafaa El-Sadr, MD, MPH, MPA, director of ICAP at the Mailman School, and Brian Coburn, PhD and Sally Blower, PhD at UCLA's Center for Biomedical Modeling, designed a mathematical model that was able to determine the number of infections prevented as a result of treating discordant couples. They used their model to make predictions for Ghana, Lesotho, Malawi and Rwanda. Full study findings were e-published on October 11, 2011 in the Journal, AIDS.
The authors use data for their modeling from a recent clinical study, HPTN 052, that showed that treatment of the HIV infected individuals in couples where the other partner was not HIV infected was successful in reducing transmission by 96 percent. "The findings from the modeling study provide insights into what to expect at a country level of expanding such a prevention strategy", noted Dr. El-Sadr, "Getting information to countries with regards to what they can expect from scale up of treatment for discordant couples on their epidemics is critical to their decision making".
"The most important aspect of our study is that by using a model to scale up the results of a clinical trial, we were able to predict the effectiveness of the intervention in controlling HIV epidemics," said Dr. Coburn. "It was very exciting to find that this couples-based intervention could be extremely effective." Dr. Blower added, "Our findings are very important as they show the intervention may be very successful in certain countries but not in others. This means we can use our model to identify which specific countries should begin to rollout this intervention."
The authors also demonstrate a practical approach for identifying countries where the expansion of HIV treatment in discordant couples is likely to have a strong effect in terms of preventing further spread of HIV. Such information is of great value as policy makers and public health leaders tackle tough decision in terms of determining their HIV control programs.
ICAP at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health is a global leader in public health, with a broad portfolio of research, training, health system strengthening, and service delivery programs in the United States and around the world. Founded in 2004, ICAP is committed to addressing critical health issues and to improving lives by improving access to high-quality, equitable, and affordable health services. Working hand-in-hand with in-country partners, ICAP has supported more than 1,200 health facilities across 21 countries. More than one million people have received HIV services through ICAP-supported programs. For more information about ICAP, visit http://www.columbia-icap.org. For information about the Mailman School of Public Health, visit http://www.mailman.columbia.edu
For information about the Semel Institute of Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA, visit http://www.semel.ucla.edu
Stephanie Berger | EurekAlert!
Drone vs. truck deliveries: Which create less carbon pollution?
31.05.2017 | University of Washington
New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)
Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.
Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...
Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.
As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...
Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.
With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...
Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine
Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...
Germany counts high-precision manufacturing processes among its advantages as a location. It’s not just the aerospace and automotive industries that require almost waste-free, high-precision manufacturing to provide an efficient way of testing the shape and orientation tolerances of products. Since current inline measurement technology not yet provides the required accuracy, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT is collaborating with four renowned industry partners in the INSPIRE project to develop inline sensors with a new accuracy class. Funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the project is scheduled to run until the end of 2019.
New Manufacturing Technologies for New Products
19.06.2017 | Event News
13.06.2017 | Event News
13.06.2017 | Event News
22.06.2017 | Life Sciences
22.06.2017 | Materials Sciences
22.06.2017 | Materials Sciences