The findings, which emerged from a large prospective study of more than 20,000 Dutch men and women aged 20-65 years begun in 1993, show that the associations of BMI and waist circumference with heart disease are equally strong, and explain one half of all fatal and one quarter of non-fatal CVD in those who are overweight and obese.
Studies which have so far established the association between BMI and waist circumference as risk factors for heart disease have, say the investigators, been based on self-reported data, and these measures frequently underestimate the true prevalence of obesity. For a true estimation of the association, accurate "anthropometric" measurements are necessary. And this is what the present study did. The Monitoring Project on Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases (MORGEN) of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands professionally measured between 1993 and 1997 both BMI and waist circumference (as well as other variables) in a cohort of 20,500 men and women. And then all subjects in the study were linked to hospital discharge and national cause-of-death records - with only 556 lost to follow-up.
BMI measurements were defined according to WHO recommendations in three categories: normal as 18.5-24.9 kg/m2; overweight as 25-29.9 kg/m2; and obese as 30 kg/m2 or more. Similarly, waist circumference measurements in men were defined as normal (102 cm); in women these measures were 88 cm respectively.
When age-adjusted BMI and waist circumference measurements were correlated with hospital records and cause-of-death statistics, results showed that in those categorised as overweight and obese around one half (53%) of all fatal CVD and one quarter (25-30%) of all non-fatal CVD were ascribed to the fact that the individual was overweight or obese.
The study also found that the overall risk of a first non-fatal CVD was ten times higher than that of fatal CVD.
Commenting on the public health implications of the study, principal investigator Ineke van Dis from the Netherlands Heart Foundation said: "Throughout Western Europe - as in the Netherlands - there has been a decline in cardiovascular mortality in recent years, which is reflected in a prevalence shift from mortality to morbidity. What this study shows is the substantial effect which overweight and obesity have on cardiovascular disease, whether fatal or non-fatal. In the near future the impact of obesity on the burden of heart disease will be even greater.
For consumer groups and our national heart foundations, these findings underline the need for policies and activities to prevent overweight in the general population. And I think that general practitioners and cardiologists can do even more to tackle these problems, especially in obese patients under 65 years, as highlighted in this study."
Extrapolating their study results to the general population, the investigators calculated (based on a population prevalence of overweight and obesity of 46%) that one third of all fatal CVD cases (and one in seven non-fatal cases) can be ascribed to overweight and obesity.
AUTHORS:More information on this press release and a PDF of the paper is available from the European Society of Cardiology's Press Office:
The study was a joint initiative of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands and Wageningen University and was supported by The Netherlands Heart Foundation.
The European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation is a journal of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (EACPR), a registered branch of the European Society of Cardiology.
Cardiovascular disease, and particularly coronary heart disease, is the leading cause of death in Europe, accounting for 38% of all deaths in men and 45% in women.
ESC Press Office | EurekAlert!
Multi-year study finds 'hotspots' of ammonia over world's major agricultural areas
17.03.2017 | University of Maryland
Diabetes Drug May Improve Bone Fat-induced Defects of Fracture Healing
17.03.2017 | Deutsches Institut für Ernährungsforschung Potsdam-Rehbrücke
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences
24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy