Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Contrasting patterns of malaria drug resistance found between humans and mosquitoes

16.11.2011
A study conducted by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute and their Zambian colleagues detected contrasting patterns of drug resistance in malaria-causing parasites taken from both humans and mosquitoes in rural Zambia.

Parasites found in human blood samples showed a high prevalence for pyrimethamine-resistance, which was consistent with the class of drugs widely used to treat malaria in the region.

However, parasites taken from mosquitoes themselves had very low prevalence of pyrimethamine-resistance and a high prevalence of cycloguanil-resistant mutants indicating resistance to a newer class of antimalaria drug not widely used in Zambia. The findings are published November 7 in the online edition of the journal PNAS and will be discussed at the November 16 seminar, "The Forever War: Malaria versus the World," held in New York City by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the New York Academy of Sciences.

Surveillance for drug-resistant parasites in human blood is a major effort in malaria control. Malaria in humans is caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which is spread from person to person through the feeding of the Anopheles mosquito. Over time, through repeated exposure to medications, the parasites can become less susceptible to drugs used to treat malaria infection, limiting their effectiveness.

"This contrast in resistance factors was a big surprise to us," said Peter Agre, MD, an author of the study and director of the Johns Hopkins Malaria Institute. "The contrast raises many questions, but we suspect that the malaria parasite can bear highly host-specific drug-resistant polymorphisms, most likely reflecting very different selection preferences between humans and mosquitos."

For the study, Sungano Mharakurwa, PhD, lead author and senior research associate with the Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute in Macha, Zambia, conducted a DNA analysis of P. falciparum found in human blood samples to those found in mosquitoes collected inside homes in rural Zambia. In samples taken from human blood, pyrimethamine-resistant mutations were greater than 90 percent and between 30 percent to 80 percent for other polymorphisms. Mutations of cycloguanil-resistance were 13 percent.

For parasites found in the mosquito midgut, cycloguanil-resistant mutants were at 90 percent while pyrimethamine-resistant mutants were detected between 2 percent and 12 percent.

"Our study indicates that mosquitoes exert an independent selection on drug resistant parasites—a finding that has not previously been noticed. If confirmed in other malaria endemic regions, it suggests an explanation for why drug resistance may appear so rapidly," said Mharakurwa.

Worldwide, malaria afflicts more than 225 million people. Each year, the disease kills approximately 800,000, many of whom are children living in Africa.

Authors of "Malaria antifolate resistance with contrasting Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) polymorphisms in humans and Anopheles mosquitoes" are Sungano Mharakurwa, Taida Kumwenda, Mtawa A. P. Mkulama, Mulenga Musapa, Sandra Chishimba, Clive J. Shiff, David J. Sullivan, Philip E. Thuma, Kun Liu and Peter Agre.

The Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute is a state-of-the-art research facility at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. It focuses on a broad program of basic science research to treat and control malaria, develop a vaccine and find new drug targets to prevent and cure this deadly disease.

Funding was provided by the Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the National Institutes of Health.

Tim Parsons | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jhsph.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Antarctic Ice Sheet mass loss has increased
14.06.2018 | Technische Universität Dresden

nachricht WAKE-UP provides new treatment option for stroke patients | International study led by UKE
17.05.2018 | Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Temperature-controlled fiber-optic light source with liquid core

In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.

Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...

Im Focus: Overdosing on Calcium

Nano crystals impact stem cell fate during bone formation

Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Better model of water under extreme conditions could aid understanding of Earth's mantle

21.06.2018 | Earth Sciences

What are the effects of coral reef marine protected areas?

21.06.2018 | Life Sciences

The Janus head of the South Asian monsoon

21.06.2018 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>