Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Conserving soil and water in dryland wheat region

25.11.2014

In the world’s driest rainfed wheat region, Washington State University researchers have identified summer fallow management practices that can make all the difference for farmers, water and soil conservation, and air quality.

Wheat growers in the Horse Heaven Hills of south-central Washington farm with an average of 6-8 inches of rain a year. Wind erosion has caused blowing dust that exceeded federal air quality standards 20 times in the past 10 years.


Harvesting hard red winter wheat at the western trial site in 2008 yielded 16 bushels per acre.

“Some of these events caused complete brown outs, zero visibility, closed freeways,” said WSU research agronomist Bill Schillinger.

Science to anchor farmer incentives

He and WSU agricultural economist Doug Young compared three fallow management systems in the western part of the Horse Heaven Hills with six inches of annual rainfall and the same practices in the eastern part with eight inches of rain.

The study was published in the Soil Science Society of America journal in September: Schillinger, W. F. and D. L. Young. (2014). Best Management Practices for Summer Fallow in the World’s Driest Rainfed Wheat Region. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 78:1707-1715 doi: 10.2136/sssaj2014.04.0168.

The five-year study provides the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service with science-based information needed to develop incentives for wheat farmers to change from traditional-tillage fallow practices to undercutter-tillage or no-till fallow systems.

Timing to trap moisture

Farmers in the Horse Heaven Hills practice a winter wheat-summer fallow rotation where only one crop is grown every other year on a given piece of land.

Average yields can be as low as 18 bushels per acre – compared to upwards of 120 bushels per acre in the higher rainfall area of the Palouse in eastern Washington. Though the margins are tight, with careful management wheat farming in the Horse Heaven Hills can be profitable.

To get the highest yield, farmers need to plant winter wheat in late August or early September after a year of fallow. The fallow period allows enough moisture from winter and spring rains to accumulate in the soil for seeds to get established.

“In east-central Washington, if you can’t plant in late summer into deep seed-zone moisture in fallow, then you have to wait for fall rains in mid-October or later,” Schillinger said.

The longer it takes to get winter wheat seedlings established, the lower the potential for good yields.

To help ensure precious soil moisture remains in the seeding zone, farmers till the soil in the spring. Tillage breaks up the capillary action of the soil; this helps slow soil moisture evaporation in the seed zone during the hot, dry summer months.

But too much tillage can cause soil loss through wind erosion that feeds hazardous dust storms.

Undercutting in the east

Compared to traditional tillage, Schillinger and Young found that undercutter tillage was the best option for fallow in the slightly moister eastern region of the Horse Heaven Hills, where late-August planting is possible and spring tillage helps retain summer soil moisture.

With wide, narrow-pitched, V-shaped blades, the undercutter slices beneath the soil surface to interrupt capillary action in the seed zone without causing much disturbance of the soil surface.

Schillinger said scientists and farmers have conclusively shown that spring tillage with the undercutter effectively retains seed-zone moisture. It also retains significantly greater surface residue and surface soil clods – which are less likely to be disturbed by wind and become airborne – compared to traditional tillage implements such as a tandem disk or field cultivator.

No till in the west

In the western region of the Horse Heaven Hills, the best option for controlling wind erosion was to practice no-till fallow; that is, to avoid tillage altogether. Most of the time, rainfall in this area simply isn’t sufficient to establish an early stand of winter wheat with any fallow management system.

“There’s no reason to till the soil when you already know in the spring that it will be too dry to plant wheat in late August,” Schillinger said.

Economist Young found that, despite the modest grain yield potential, wheat farming in this environment can be profitable – with enough acreage and judicious use of inputs to manage costs. In fact, late-planted winter wheat on no-till fallow was just as profitable as traditional-tillage and undercutter-tillage fallow treatments at the western site.

Contact:

Bill Schillinger, WSU Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, 509-235-1933, william.schillinger@wsu.edu

Bill Schillinger | EurekAlert!
Further information:
https://news.wsu.edu/2014/11/24/study-conserving-soil-and-water-in-dryland-wheat-region/#.VHRXXGF0zcs

Further reports about: Soil Science capillary action farmers moisture rainfall soil moisture wheat wind erosion

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Smart Data Transformation – Surfing the Big Wave
02.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Informationstechnik FIT

nachricht Climate change could outpace EPA Lake Champlain protections
18.11.2016 | University of Vermont

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>