One person correctly remembers four of eight items just seen but is fuzzy on details. Another person recalls only two of the items but with amazingly precise clarity. So what ability translates to higher IQ?
According to a University of Oregon study, the answer is very clear: More items stored in short-term memory is linked to greater fluid intelligence, as measured in IQ tests. The resolution of those memories, while important in many situations, shows no relationship with fluid intelligence.
The notion that numbers of items is vitally important to short-term memory has been shown in previous studies at the UO. Those studies found that people, generally, have a capacity to temporarily store three to five items in short-term memory. Previous research has shown that capacity in short-term memory is a reliable predictor of an individual's IQ.
However, the new study, published in the October issue of the journal Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, sought to take a more comprehensive look at the issue to determine which aspects of memory capacity explained the link with fluid intelligence.
"The number of things people can remember is robustly correlated with fluid intelligence -- the larger number remembered, the higher the IQ." said Edward Awh, a psychology professor and a member of the Oregon Visual Working Memory & Attention Lab. "Resolution in memory is not predictive of IQ at all."
"Clarity," said lead author Keisuke Fukuda, a UO doctoral student, "relates to how well a person can detect small changes." This clarity, Fukuda and Awh noted, is indeed important but is a reflection of a person's experience in specific domains of perception. For example, while Japanese characters may appear to be similar to an American's eye, regular Japanese readers will readily see the differences between distinct characters.
Fukuda put 79 undergraduate students through a series of experiments in which either four or eight objects were shown on a screen for an instant. After a one-second blank screen, one item was returned and the subject asked whether that object had been in a location previously.
By examining the ability to detect large and small changes in the memorized items, Fukuda was able to get estimates of both the number of items maintained in memory, as well as the resolution or clarity of those memories. These aspects of memory were then related to the subjects' scores on tests of fluid intelligence.
The discovery that clarity doesn't factor into a person's IQ score doesn't suggest that memory resolution is unimportant, the researchers noted. The importance of clarity or resolution of things remembered is indeed vital, for example, to a radiologist studying images of a patient's internal organs with potential disease conditions.
Co-authors with Fukuda and Awh on the paper were UO psychology professors Edward Vogel, who is a director in the Oregon Visual Working Memory & Attention Lab, and Ulrich Mayr. The National Institutes of Health supported the research through grants to Awh and Vogel.
About the University of Oregon
The University of Oregon is a world-class teaching and research institution and Oregon's flagship public university. The UO is a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU), an organization made up of the 63 leading public and private research institutions in the United States and Canada. The UO is one of only two AAU members in the Pacific Northwest.
Sources: Ed Awh, professor of psychology, 541-346-4983, firstname.lastname@example.org; and Keisuke Fukuda, doctoral student, psychology, 541-346-4119, email@example.com
Audio segments and photos available at: http://bit.ly/gx0pE5Links:
Jim Barlow | EurekAlert!
New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)
Reusable carbon nanotubes could be the water filter of the future, says RIT study
30.03.2017 | Rochester Institute of Technology
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
Two researchers at Heidelberg University have developed a model system that enables a better understanding of the processes in a quantum-physical experiment...
Glaciers might seem rather inhospitable environments. However, they are home to a diverse and vibrant microbial community. It’s becoming increasingly clear that they play a bigger role in the carbon cycle than previously thought.
A new study, now published in the journal Nature Geoscience, shows how microbial communities in melting glaciers contribute to the Earth’s carbon cycle, a...
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
03.04.2017 | Event News
21.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.04.2017 | Health and Medicine
21.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy