Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Brandeis study shows economic impact of dengue virus in Americas

08.02.2011
Researchers hope to spur investment in control strategies

Dengue illness, the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in the world, has expanded from its Southeast Asian origins and is resurgent in countries such as Argentina, Chile and the continental United States.

The economic burden of dengue (pronounced DENgee) in the Western Hemisphere, according to a new study from Brandeis University researchers published today in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, is approximately $2.1 billion per year. This surpasses the loss from other viral illnesses on a country-by-country basis including human papillomavirus (HPV) the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection, and rotavirus, the primary cause of fatal diarrhea among children worldwide.

According to the study group's estimates, 60 percent of the economic strain caused by dengue is a result of indirect costs — primarily productivity losses affecting households, employers and government expenditures. Direct costs include ambulatory and hospital care.

Dengue fever, the more common dengue illness, causes high fever, joint pain, and severe headache. Dengue hemorrhagic fever, the more severe dengue illness, may put a patient into shock and lead to death. The number of annual dengue infections is now estimated between 50-100 million, with 24,000 deaths, primarily among children.

"In 2009 Florida experienced the first major outbreak in the continental U.S. in over 50 years," said Donald S. Shepard, professor at the Schneider Institutes for Health Policy in the Heller School for Social Policy and Management. "We know first-hand that regardless of where you live, we can all be affected by dengue."

Shepard began researching dengue in 1990 when presented with the opportunity to collaborate with scientist Scott B. Halstead, who then headed up the health program at the Rockefeller Foundation in New York City. Shepard's research, which related the economic burdens and the controlling of dengue, was part of the Disease Control Priorities Project, which was published by the World Bank in 1993.

A decade later, in 2001, Halstead convened a meeting in Korea that gave rise to creating the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI). Shepard contributed to the proposal and to the founding of the PDVI, serving on its Board of Counselors and Executive Committee.

Initially supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation — through PDVI — subsequent dengue research at Brandeis has been supported by Sanofi Pasteur, a research-based vaccine company based in France. At this time Sanofi Pasteur is the furthest along in developing a dengue vaccine; its product will go into phase 3 clinical trials this year.

"The ultimate goal is controlling the disease," says Shepard.

One moderately effective approach currently in use, he says, includes placing larvacide in water-storage containers, which stops the breeding of the mosquitos that spread the virus. Also under development are methods for sterilizing mosquitoes that carry the disease so future mosquito populations will be smaller.

Yara Halasa, a research associate at the Heller School's Schneider Institute for Health Policy and one of the co-authors with Shepard on the "Economic Impact of Dengue Illness in the Americas," has been involved with the dengue project for three years. A native of Jordan, Halasa's passion for understanding the impact of disease began when writing about the subject in her native country.

"Understanding the economic impact of a disease is an important tool to assist policy makers in understanding the social as well as the medical impact. This is a great methodology that can be used for any disease," said Halasa, who is also a dentist and has been working with Shepard since 2008.

Dengue is classified by the World Health Organization as among "Neglected Tropical Diseases," meaning it is prevalent in the tropics, yet has not received attention commensurate with its burden like other diseases such as malaria. Shepard says he feels it has been largely neglected by policy makers "because it affects the tropics, and since many policymakers live in temperate climates, the disease doesn't come to their back door."

It's also a disease, he says, in which there are promising options for control.

"Technologies need resources and economic analysis quantifies the burden of the disease in human and economic terms," says Shepard. "The studies show how much societies could save from effective control strategies."

The hope is that these analyses will help policy makers decide to invest the resources needed to develop and implement effective measures.

Shepard says that he's optimistic that a vaccine will come into widespread use in the coming years as phase 3 trials are beginning in a number of locations around the world and Sanofi Pasteur is currently building a large production plant in France to be ready when the vaccine is introduced.

"It was a long shot 20 years ago when I started working on this disease, but it's becoming much closer now," says Shepard.

Shepard has been involved with a number of studies on the economics of vaccines. In some cases the technologies already existed and the research aided more widespread dissemination. For example, he led an evaluation in Ecuador that found that its mass campaigns were cost-effective in saving lives through increasing vaccination coverage. Another study showed that despite the higher price of a vaccine that protected against more diseases, incorporating hepatitis B or hemophilus influenza type B (HiB) into the basic childhood DTP vaccine (diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus) was economically advantageous due to higher coverage, savings in personnel time, and less discomfort by children.

"We know first-hand that regardless of where you live, we are all affected by dengue," says Shepard. "At the Heller School, we lost a remarkable graduate, Mironda Heston, who contracted dengue while working in Haiti. In her memory, we are extremely dedicated and proud to contribute to a better understanding of this awful virus in hopes to better control it."

Susan Chaityn Lebovits | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.brandeis.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht The personality factor: How to foster the sharing of research data
06.09.2017 | ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft

nachricht Europe’s Demographic Future. Where the Regions Are Heading after a Decade of Crises
10.08.2017 | Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The fastest light-driven current source

Controlling electronic current is essential to modern electronics, as data and signals are transferred by streams of electrons which are controlled at high speed. Demands on transmission speeds are also increasing as technology develops. Scientists from the Chair of Laser Physics and the Chair of Applied Physics at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have succeeded in switching on a current with a desired direction in graphene using a single laser pulse within a femtosecond ¬¬ – a femtosecond corresponds to the millionth part of a billionth of a second. This is more than a thousand times faster compared to the most efficient transistors today.

Graphene is up to the job

Im Focus: LaserTAB: More efficient and precise contacts thanks to human-robot collaboration

At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.

Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...

Im Focus: The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet

Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.

A warming planet

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Nerves control the body’s bacterial community

26.09.2017 | Life Sciences

Four elements make 2-D optical platform

26.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Goodbye, login. Hello, heart scan

26.09.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>