A study led by Baylor University and Wesleyan University geologists shows that a new method that uses different size and shape traits of leaves to reconstruct past climates over the last 120 million years is more accurate than other current methods.
The study appeared in the April issue of the journal New Phytologist and was funded by the National Science Foundation.
"Paleobotanists have long used models based on leaf size and shape to reconstruct ancient climates," said Dr. Daniel Peppe, assistant professor of geology at Baylor, College of Arts and Sciences, who is an expert in paleomagnetism, paleobotany and paleoclimatology. "However most of these models use just a single variable or variables that are not directly linked to climate, which obviously limits the models' predictive power. For that reason, they models often underestimate ancient temperatures."
Baylor geology researchers, along with 26 other co-authors from universities around the world, collected thousands of leaves from many different species of plants from 92 climatically-different and plant-diverse locations on every continent except Africa and Antarctica. Multiple linear regression models for mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were developed and then applied to nine well-studied fossil floras.
The results showed:
• Leaves in cold climates typically have larger, more numerous teeth, and are more dissected. Leaves in wet climates are larger and have fewer, smaller teeth.
• Leaf habit (deciduous vs. evergreen), local water availability and phylogenetic history all affect the relationships between climate and leaf size and shape.
• The researchers' multivariate mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation models offer strong improvements in accuracy and precision over single variable approaches. For example, the mean annual temperature estimates for most of North American fossil floras were considerably warmer and wetter and in better agreement with independent paleoclimate evidence. This suggests that these new models offer the potential to provide climate estimates that will help scientists better understand ancient climates.
"Our study demonstrates that the inclusion of additional leaf traits that are functionally linked to climate improves paleoclimate reconstructions," Peppe said. "This will help us to better reconstruct past climates and ecosystems, which will allow us to study how ecosystems respond to climate change and variations in climate on local, regional and global scales."
Media contact: Matt Pene, Assistant Director of Media Communications, 254-710-4656.
Matt Pene | EurekAlert!
Diagnoses: When Are Several Opinions Better Than One?
19.07.2016 | Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung
High in calories and low in nutrients when adolescents share pictures of food online
07.04.2016 | University of Gothenburg
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.
Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine
21.10.2016 | Information Technology
21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences