The addition of concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide, a chemotherapy drug also referred to as TMZ, to post-operative radiation therapy has been shown to improve overall survival in randomized trials for patients younger than 70, but it was unknown if this benefit translated down to the population-based level.
To answer this, researchers performed a population-based survival analysis of newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients (from 2000 to 2007) covering the period before and after the introduction of temozolomide. They further analyzed the impact of mean regional income on any improvements in overall survival during this time period.
Survival statistics and pertinent clinical and demographic variables were extracted from the Survival, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Database for patients diagnosed. Patients were divided into income quartiles based on mean household income in their county of residence.
From 2001 to 2007, the median survival time increased from 7 to 9 months for the entire population. One-year survival rate increased from 29 percent to 39 percent.
Outcomes in patients older than 70 years did not improve over this period, even amongst patients who had gross total resection and radiation therapy. Over the study period, the absolute disparity in one-year survival between economically poor-and-affluent areas increased from 6.6 percent to 10.1 percent.
"The management of patients with glioblastoma continues to be a challenge for treating oncologists," said Mark Mishra, M.D., of the department of radiation oncology at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital. "The results of this large, population-based analysis indicate that recent advances in the treatment of glioblastoma patients have resulted in a small, but significant improvement in overall survival over the past decade.
"However, these improvements have also been accompanied with a widening of the health disparities gap for these patients."
Future efforts should be made to identify and mitigate factors contributing to the widening economic disparities gap, according to the researchers.
There are approximately 17,000 primary brain tumors diagnosed in the United States each year, 60 percent of which are gliomas. The most common and malignant glioma is glioblastoma, the type of brain cancer Senator Ted Kennedy was diagnosed with and died from.
Other authors include Adam Dicker, M.D., Ph.D., Chair of Radiation Oncology at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Maria Werner-Wasik, M.D., David W. Andrews, M.D., Xinglei Shen, M.D., Timothy Showalter, M.D., John Glass, M.D., all from Thomas Jefferson University, and Zvi Symon, of Sheba Medical Center in Israel, and Yaacov R. Lawrence, M.D., a resident in radiation oncology at Jefferson and director of the Center for Translational Research in Radiation Oncology, Sheba Medical Center in Israel.
The Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson is one of a select group of National Cancer Institute-designated Clinical Cancer Centers in the nation. It was founded in 1991 with approximately 30 investigators in basic sciences. Today, the KCC has approximately 150 members that include physicians and scientists dedicated to discovery and development of novel approaches for cancer treatment.
Thomas Jefferson University, the largest freestanding academic medical center in Philadelphia, is composed of Jefferson Medical College, Jefferson College of Graduate Studies, Jefferson School of Population Health, Jefferson School of Health Professions, Jefferson School of Pharmacy, and Jefferson School of Nursing. Jefferson is regarded nationally as one of the best universities offering a range of comprehensive programs for the education of health professions. Thomas Jefferson University partners with Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, its education and clinical care affiliate.
Steve Graff | EurekAlert!
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The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
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Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
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The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
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