Over the past decade, much progress has been made regarding the understanding and promise of personalized medicine. Scientists are just beginning to consider the impact of gene-diet interactions in different populations in regards to disease prevention and treatment.
The latest research from Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center and the laboratories of Floyd H. "Ski" Chilton, Ph.D., professor of physiology and pharmacology and director of the Center for Botanical Lipids and Inflammatory Disease Prevention, and Rasika Mathias, Sc.D, assistant professor of medicine and epidemiology at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, reveals how humans of different ancestry process a certain type of fat called polyunsaturated (PUFA) fat.
Importantly, this work suggests that the dramatic increase in a particular type of fatty acid, omega-6 PUFAs, in the American diet, together with a genetic propensity, causes individuals of African descent to more efficiently convert these dietary PUFAs to long chain PUFAs in the human body. Long chain PUFA can then, in turn, be converted to inflammatory messengers. Increased inflammatory messengers have been associated with a variety of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, arthritis, allergies and asthma, and diabetes.
The research, described in a manuscript that appears online this month in BMC Genetics, with upcoming publication in The British Journal of Nutrition, finds that populations of African descent have a much higher frequency of the gene variants associated with the conversion of dietary, medium chain omega-6 PUFAs to long chain omega-6 PUFAs that then have the potential to increase inflammation. Medium chain omega-6 PUFAs are found in the American diet in very high concentrations in margarine, vegetable oils, animal fats and processed foods.
"I believe observations such as this begin to address the critical question of why western diets seem to differentially impact African Americans with cardiovascular disease and diabetes at a higher rate than their Caucasian counterparts," said Chilton.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that chronic diseases —such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes — are the leading causes of death and disability in the United States, accounting for 70 percent of all deaths in the U.S. These chronic diseases also limit daily living for about 25 million people.
Chilton and other groups of scientists have shown that genetic variation in a small region of chromosome 11, known as the FADS cluster, plays a critical role in determining rates of PUFA metabolism in populations of European and Asian ancestry.
The current studies are the first to look at populations of African ancestry. Chilton initially suspected there would be differences when he found that African Americans have much higher circulating levels of a long chain omega-6 PUFA, arachidonic acid (AA), than European Americans. The current research indicates there is a great deal of genetic difference between people of African and European ancestry regarding their ability to make long chain PUFAs. This is concerning, said Chilton, because over the last 75 years, there has been a dramatic increase in the consumption of medium chain omega-6 PUFAs -- from an estimated 2.8 percent to nearly 8 percent of daily calorie intake.
"This is an important example of why it is critical to advance the field of personalized nutrition," Chilton said. "Understanding which nutrients may be healthy for one population, but not for another will be essential to optimizing public health."
Dietary recommendations made by major health organizations are typically generalized to multiple populations, but are often based on available data from studies that represent one or two human populations. With regard to PUFAs, the American Heart Association currently recommends that Americans increase dietary PUFA levels to 5 to 10 percent of dietary energy. Studies like these suggest that such recommendations may not apply or be healthy for all populations.
"It is critical to study groups such as African Americans because they bear a large proportion of the public health burden of many of the chronic complex diseases of inflammation," Chilton said.
Co-authors on the study, funded by the National Institutes of Health, are: Donald W. Bowden, Ph.D., Barry I. Freedman, M.D., Carl D. Langefeld, Ph.D., Christina E. Hugenschmidt, Ph.D., Susan Sergeant, Ph.D., Julie T. Ziegler, M.A., ¬¬¬Hannah C. Ainsworth, B.S., Priscilla Ivester, M.S., L. Douglas Case, Ph.D., and Megan E. Rudock, Ph.D., all of Wake Forest Baptist; Rasika A. Mathias, ScD, Lewis C. Becker, M.D., Diane M. Becker, M.P.H., ScD., Kathleen C. Barnes, Ph.D., Dhananjay Vaidya, Ph.D., and Lisa R. Yanek, M.P.H., all of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine; and Dara G. Torgerson, Ph.D., of Cornell University.
Chilton is the founder and chief scientific advisor for Gene Smart Health, a preventative health care company that markets anti-inflammatory nutritional supplements and medical foods, utilizing outcomes of his research to understand the relation between diet and exercise, genes and health. Chilton is the author of numerous books and articles on health and nutrition.
Media Relations Contacts: Bonnie Davis, email@example.com, (336) 716-4977; or Marguerite Beck, firstname.lastname@example.org, (336) 716-2415.
Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center is a fully integrated academic medical center located in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. The institution comprises the medical education and research components of Wake Forest School of Medicine, the integrated clinical structure and consumer brand Wake Forest Baptist Health, which includes North Carolina Baptist Hospital and Brenner Children's Hospital, the commercialization of research discoveries through the Piedmont Triad Research Park, as well as a network of affiliated community-based hospitals, physician practices, outpatient services and other medical facilities. Wake Forest School of Medicine is ranked among the nation's best medical schools and is a leading national research center in fields such as regenerative medicine, cancer, neuroscience, aging, addiction and public health sciences. Wake Forest Baptist's clinical programs are consistently ranked as among the best in the country by U.S.News & World Report.
Bonnie Davis | EurekAlert!
WAKE-UP provides new treatment option for stroke patients | International study led by UKE
17.05.2018 | Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf
First form of therapy for childhood dementia CLN2 developed
25.04.2018 | Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf
A research team led by physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed molecular nanoswitches that can be toggled between two structurally different states using an applied voltage. They can serve as the basis for a pioneering class of devices that could replace silicon-based components with organic molecules.
The development of new electronic technologies drives the incessant reduction of functional component sizes. In the context of an international collaborative...
At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.
At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...
There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?
At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...
So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics
Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...
The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...
02.05.2018 | Event News
13.04.2018 | Event News
12.04.2018 | Event News
24.05.2018 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation
24.05.2018 | Medical Engineering
24.05.2018 | Physics and Astronomy