Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Ancestry plays vital role in nutrition and disease, study shows

15.06.2011
African-Americans have genetics to process fats differently, possibly leading to more inflammation

Over the past decade, much progress has been made regarding the understanding and promise of personalized medicine. Scientists are just beginning to consider the impact of gene-diet interactions in different populations in regards to disease prevention and treatment.

The latest research from Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center and the laboratories of Floyd H. "Ski" Chilton, Ph.D., professor of physiology and pharmacology and director of the Center for Botanical Lipids and Inflammatory Disease Prevention, and Rasika Mathias, Sc.D, assistant professor of medicine and epidemiology at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, reveals how humans of different ancestry process a certain type of fat called polyunsaturated (PUFA) fat.

Importantly, this work suggests that the dramatic increase in a particular type of fatty acid, omega-6 PUFAs, in the American diet, together with a genetic propensity, causes individuals of African descent to more efficiently convert these dietary PUFAs to long chain PUFAs in the human body. Long chain PUFA can then, in turn, be converted to inflammatory messengers. Increased inflammatory messengers have been associated with a variety of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, arthritis, allergies and asthma, and diabetes.

The research, described in a manuscript that appears online this month in BMC Genetics, with upcoming publication in The British Journal of Nutrition, finds that populations of African descent have a much higher frequency of the gene variants associated with the conversion of dietary, medium chain omega-6 PUFAs to long chain omega-6 PUFAs that then have the potential to increase inflammation. Medium chain omega-6 PUFAs are found in the American diet in very high concentrations in margarine, vegetable oils, animal fats and processed foods.

"I believe observations such as this begin to address the critical question of why western diets seem to differentially impact African Americans with cardiovascular disease and diabetes at a higher rate than their Caucasian counterparts," said Chilton.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that chronic diseases —such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes — are the leading causes of death and disability in the United States, accounting for 70 percent of all deaths in the U.S. These chronic diseases also limit daily living for about 25 million people.

Chilton and other groups of scientists have shown that genetic variation in a small region of chromosome 11, known as the FADS cluster, plays a critical role in determining rates of PUFA metabolism in populations of European and Asian ancestry.

The current studies are the first to look at populations of African ancestry. Chilton initially suspected there would be differences when he found that African Americans have much higher circulating levels of a long chain omega-6 PUFA, arachidonic acid (AA), than European Americans. The current research indicates there is a great deal of genetic difference between people of African and European ancestry regarding their ability to make long chain PUFAs. This is concerning, said Chilton, because over the last 75 years, there has been a dramatic increase in the consumption of medium chain omega-6 PUFAs -- from an estimated 2.8 percent to nearly 8 percent of daily calorie intake.

"This is an important example of why it is critical to advance the field of personalized nutrition," Chilton said. "Understanding which nutrients may be healthy for one population, but not for another will be essential to optimizing public health."

Dietary recommendations made by major health organizations are typically generalized to multiple populations, but are often based on available data from studies that represent one or two human populations. With regard to PUFAs, the American Heart Association currently recommends that Americans increase dietary PUFA levels to 5 to 10 percent of dietary energy. Studies like these suggest that such recommendations may not apply or be healthy for all populations.

"It is critical to study groups such as African Americans because they bear a large proportion of the public health burden of many of the chronic complex diseases of inflammation," Chilton said.

Co-authors on the study, funded by the National Institutes of Health, are: Donald W. Bowden, Ph.D., Barry I. Freedman, M.D., Carl D. Langefeld, Ph.D., Christina E. Hugenschmidt, Ph.D., Susan Sergeant, Ph.D., Julie T. Ziegler, M.A., ¬¬¬Hannah C. Ainsworth, B.S., Priscilla Ivester, M.S., L. Douglas Case, Ph.D., and Megan E. Rudock, Ph.D., all of Wake Forest Baptist; Rasika A. Mathias, ScD, Lewis C. Becker, M.D., Diane M. Becker, M.P.H., ScD., Kathleen C. Barnes, Ph.D., Dhananjay Vaidya, Ph.D., and Lisa R. Yanek, M.P.H., all of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine; and Dara G. Torgerson, Ph.D., of Cornell University.

Chilton is the founder and chief scientific advisor for Gene Smart Health, a preventative health care company that markets anti-inflammatory nutritional supplements and medical foods, utilizing outcomes of his research to understand the relation between diet and exercise, genes and health. Chilton is the author of numerous books and articles on health and nutrition.

Media Relations Contacts: Bonnie Davis, bdavis@wakehealth.edu, (336) 716-4977; or Marguerite Beck, marbeck@wakehealth.edu, (336) 716-2415.

Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center is a fully integrated academic medical center located in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. The institution comprises the medical education and research components of Wake Forest School of Medicine, the integrated clinical structure and consumer brand Wake Forest Baptist Health, which includes North Carolina Baptist Hospital and Brenner Children's Hospital, the commercialization of research discoveries through the Piedmont Triad Research Park, as well as a network of affiliated community-based hospitals, physician practices, outpatient services and other medical facilities. Wake Forest School of Medicine is ranked among the nation's best medical schools and is a leading national research center in fields such as regenerative medicine, cancer, neuroscience, aging, addiction and public health sciences. Wake Forest Baptist's clinical programs are consistently ranked as among the best in the country by U.S.News & World Report.

Bonnie Davis | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wakehealth.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Win-win strategies for climate and food security
02.10.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

nachricht The personality factor: How to foster the sharing of research data
06.09.2017 | ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>