Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Analyzing disease transmission at the community level

29.05.2012
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have found evidence of a role for neighborhood immunity in determining risk of dengue infection.

While it is established that immunity can be an important factor in the large-scale distribution of disease, this study demonstrates that local variation at spatial scales of just a few hundred meters can significantly alter the risk of infection, even in a highly mobile and dense urban population with significant immunity. The study is published in May 28 edition of the journal PNAS.

Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that infects nearly 50 million people worldwide each year, resulting in more than 19,000 deaths. There are four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1) circulating in Bangkok, Thailand, where the study was conducted. Infection with dengue provides lifelong immunity to the infecting serotype and there is evidence infection temporarily protects from infection by other serotypes. When susceptibility to other serotypes returns there is an increased risk for severe disease. For the study, the research team used the household location of 1,912 confirmed dengue cases in Bangkok that were admitted to a local children's hospital between 1995 and 2000. The available data enabled the researchers to pair dengue serotype infections with specific households.

Observations indicated that immunological memory of dengue serotypes occurs at the neighborhood level in this large urban setting. The researchers developed methods that have broad application to studying the spatiotemporal structure of disease risk where pathogen serotype or genetic information is known.

"We observe patterns of spatiotemporal dependence consistent with the expected impacts of lifelong and short-term immunity, and immune enhancement of disease at distances of under one kilometer," said Henrik Salje, lead author of the study and doctoral candidate in the Bloomberg School's Department of Epidemiology.

"By providing insight into the potential spatial scales that immunity in a population is correlated and distances over which the disease is dispersed, these findings can help us further understand how dengue is being maintained in endemic populations," said the study's senior author, Derek Cummings, PhD, assistant professor with the Bloomberg School's departments of Epidemiology and International Health.

The authors of "Revealing the microscale spatial signature of dengue transmission and immunity in an urban population" are Henrik Salje, Justin Lessler, Timothy P. Endy, Frank Curriero, Robert V. Gibbons, Ananda Nisalak, Suchitira Nimmannitya, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Richard G. Jarman, Stephen J. Thomas, Donald S. Burke and Derek A. T. Cummings.

The research was funded by grants from the Gates Foundation Vaccine Modeling Initiative, the National Institutes of Health, the Burroughs Wellcome Fund Career Award, and the Research and Policy for Infectious Disease Dynamics initiative of the NIH and Department of Homeland Security.

Follow the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health on Facebook at http://www.facebook.com/JohnsHopkinsSPH and Twitter at http://www.twitter.com/JohnsHopkinsSPH.

Tim Parsons | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jhsph.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht A sudden drop in outdoor temperature increases the risk of respiratory infections
11.01.2017 | University of Gothenburg

nachricht Urbanization to convert 300,000 km2 of prime croplands
27.12.2016 | Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC) gGmbH

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A big nano boost for solar cells

18.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Glass's off-kilter harmonies

18.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed

18.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>