Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Analysis shows which people most likely found incompetent to stand trial

24.02.2011
Unemployed and those diagnosed with psychotic disorder more likely to be determined incompetent

People found incompetent to stand trial are more likely to be unemployed, have been previously diagnosed with a psychotic disorder or have had psychiatric hospitalization, according to an analysis of 50 years of research, published by the American Psychological Association.

"Competency to stand trial evaluations have been regarded as the most significant mental health inquiry pursued in the system of criminal law," said the paper's lead author, Gianni Pirelli, PhD, who conducted the research at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York and is presently on staff at Greystone Park Psychiatric Hospital in New Jersey.

The paper, published in the APA journal Psychology, Public Policy and Law, examined results of 68 studies from 1967 to 2008 to help determine which variables are most closely related to findings of incompetency, as well as which measures are best to use in competency evaluations. Combined, the studies' participants totaled 26,139 individuals, with 6,428 found incompetent and 19,711 found competent. Only approximately half of the studies included female participants.

The current legal standard for competency to stand trial is based on a 1960 Supreme Court ruling in Dusky v. United States that determined a defendant is competent if "he has sufficient present ability to consult with his lawyer with a reasonable degree of rational understanding – and whether he has a rational as well as factual understanding of the proceedings against him," the article states.

The paper analyzed comparisons among demographic, psychiatric and criminal variables for competent and incompetent defendants. It found that defendants diagnosed with a psychotic disorder were approximately eight times more likely to be found incompetent, and unemployed defendants were twice as likely to be found incompetent. The likelihood of being found incompetent was also double for defendants with a previous psychiatric hospitalization.

Additionally, in contrast to a competent defendant, those found to be incompetent were slightly older, predominantly non-white and unmarried, the research showed. Regarding similarities between competent and incompetent defendants, the study found the majority were male, had a prior arrest history, a current violent criminal charge and an average of about 10 years of education.

Competency test data "must be integrated with information obtained from clinical interviews, other relevant test data and observation/reports from collateral sources," the authors wrote. They emphasized the importance of competency evaluations and the risks if these evaluations are conducted poorly, including allowing an incompetent defendant to stand trial or violating a defendant's civil rights by temporarily committing him or her to a psychiatric facility.

Article: "A Meta-Analytic Review of Competency to Stand Trial Research," Gianni Pirelli, PhD, The Graduate Center at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, The City University of New York (CUNY); William H. Gottdiener, PhD, and Patricia A. Zapf, PhD, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Psychology, Public Policy, & Law, Vol. 17, Issue 1.

Full text of the article is available from the APA Public Affairs Office and at: http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/law-17-1-1.pdf

Contact Dr. Gianni Pirelli at gianni.pirelli@gmail.com

The American Psychological Association, in Washington, D.C., is the largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States and is the world's largest association of psychologists. APA's membership includes more than 150,000 researchers, educators, clinicians, consultants and students. Through its divisions in 54 subfields of psychology and affiliations with 60 state, territorial and Canadian provincial associations, APA works to advance psychology as a science, as a profession and as a means of promoting health, education and human welfare.

Lisa Bowen | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.apa.org

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Smart Data Transformation – Surfing the Big Wave
02.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Informationstechnik FIT

nachricht Climate change could outpace EPA Lake Champlain protections
18.11.2016 | University of Vermont

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>