Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Age, gender can affect risk to radiation treatment

17.03.2010
Doctors have a clearer picture than ever before of how much radiation reaches sensitive tissues during routine X-rays and similar imaging, thanks to sophisticated models of the human body being developed at the University of Florida.

"We're building a rich library of computer simulation tools and 3-D patient models that will make dose estimates much more accurate and patient-specific," said Wesley E. Bolch, Ph.D., a professor in the UF departments of nuclear and radiological engineering and biomedical engineering, and a member of the UF Shands Cancer Center.

In the March 5 issue of Physics in Medicine and Biology, Bolch and researchers in his lab discuss how they used three-dimensional microCT imaging to describe cartilage, bone marrow and two types of mineral bone in 20 different skeletal sites from two newborns. It is the second in a series of planned articles that will describe variations in tissue and bone that can affect how much radiation is absorbed by the body.

They discovered that children have a greater percentage of total mineral bone in direct contact with sensitive bone marrow than do adults. This has implications for radiation treatments and types of chemotherapy used to treat cancer patients, especially therapies targeting pediatric bone cancers.

In contrast to existing models, the study also found that a large amount of the electron and beta particle energy once believed to stay contained within the bone marrow of children actually escapes to surrounding tissue, said Deanna Pafundi, PhD, a UF researcher and lead author of the paper, now a research fellow at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. This finding is being used in existing UF research calculating the impact of radiation to the skeletal surrounding tissues, she said.

Radiation epidemiologists can use the revised model to look back in time, estimating doses of radiation associated with leukemia risk, Bolch said. He pointed to the case of unusually high rates of leukemia among a Russian population exposed to river discharges of bone-seeking radionuclides during the Soviet's nuclear weapons program in the 1950s. UF's newborn skeletal model suggests that radiation doses to newborn bone marrow have been overestimated by existing clinical skeletal models.

Most current estimates of bone marrow radiation dose are obtained from two-dimensional images acquired from seven skeletal sites in a 44-year-old adult male during the late 1960s, Bolch said. UF's current work seeks to replace these widely used estimates from the University of Leeds by using three-dimensional imaging and extending the work to the pediatric and prenatal skeleton. The work will illustrate how bone marrow radiation dose can vary with patient size, whether a patient has osteoporosis, and marrow health.

"Wes Bolch is doing research that will give clinicians the tools to reduce the level of patients' radiation exposure. It's very important work," said George Xu, Ph.D, a professor in the department of mechanical, aerospace and nuclear engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, N.Y.

The models are being created at a time when the medical community is sounding the alarm about the potential for harm from excessive radiation exposure. According to the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the average annual radiation exposure in the United States increased about 75 percent between 1982 and 2006. During that time, the proportion of exposure due to medical interventions rose from 15 percent to 48 percent.

"The current philosophy is that there is a small but perceptible risk of cancer with every radiation exposure. Consequently, you want to maximize the dose delivered to the tumor in radiation therapy, while minimizing the dose and thus additional cancer risk to surrounding healthy tissues," Bolch said.

Children are at particular risk from radiation exposure, Bolch said, as the carcinogenic effects of radiation have more time to develop in children than in adults. In response to these concerns, professionals involved in pediatric imaging have launched a campaign, dubbed Image Gently, to highlight opportunities to lower radiation dosing when imaging children.

"The risk in using ionizing radiation for both therapy and imaging is never going to be zero, but it can be reduced through proper guidelines and patient modeling of these procedures," Bolch said.

Elizabeth Connor | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ufl.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Real-time feedback helps save energy and water
08.02.2017 | Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

nachricht The Great Unknown: Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents
19.01.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Safe glide at total engine failure with ELA-inside

On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded after a glide flight with an Airbus A320 in ditching on the Hudson River. All 155 people on board were saved.

On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded...

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New pop-up strategy inspired by cuts, not folds

27.02.2017 | Materials Sciences

Sandia uses confined nanoparticles to improve hydrogen storage materials performance

27.02.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

Decoding the genome's cryptic language

27.02.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>