The study looked at the link between maternal age, BMI and racial origin with the development of GDM and how they interact with each other.
Data were collected on 585,291 pregnancies in women attending for antenatal care and delivery at 15 maternity units in North West London from 1988-2000.The study included 1,688 women who developed GDM and 172,632 who did not.
Maternal age was divided into the following groups: below 20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39 and above 40 years of age.
Maternal BMI was also divided according to the WHO international classification of BMI as follows: less than 18.5(underweight), 18.50-24.99 (normal weight), 25.00-29.99 (overweight) and more or equal to 30.00 (obese). Prevalence of GDM was calculated for each maternal age and BMI group.
There was a strong association between GDM development and advancing maternal age which varied by racial group.
Using White European women age 20-24 years as a comparison group, White European women older than 30 years had significantly higher odds ratios (ORs)for developing GDM.
The ORs for GDM development were also significantly higher in the other racial groups but at a younger maternal age (older than 25 years if they were Black Africans or Black Caribbeans and older than 20 years if they were South Asians). Moreover, the rate of GDM rose more rapidly with age. For example, in mothers aged 40 years or more, the rate of GDM had risen to 1.9% in white European mothers (from 0.5% at age 20-24), but to 11.4% in South Asians (from 1.1) and 21.7% in black Africans (from 0.7%).
White European women under the age of 20 were the only group to have significantly lower ORs for developing GDM.
In addition, there was also a strong link between GDM and BMI in all the racial groups. Using White European women with a normal BMI as the comparison group, the ORs for developing GDM were significantly higher in the overweight and obese White European and Black Caribbean groups and significantly higher in all BMI categories of Black African and South Asian women.
Dr Makrina Savvidou, Consultant in Obstetrics and Fetal Medicine, Academic Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital and co-author of the paper said:
"Gestational diabetes complicates 3-5% of pregnancies. Currently in the UK, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommends a diagnostic test for gestational diabetes in women with traditional risk factors, such as increased body mass index, family or previous personal history of gestational diabetes, delivery of a large baby and racial origin with a high prevalence of diabetes.
"However, this new research shows that maternal age, alone and in correlation with the maternal racial origin, may also be a significant factor contributing to the development of gestational diabetes. Age has not been included as one of the screening criteria because the secular increase in maternal age over recent years would have resulted in offering a diagnostic test for gestational diabetes to a high proportion of the pregnant population.
"It is important that clinicians are aware of all the contributing factors as gestational diabetes can result in adverse perinatal outcomes."
Mike Marsh, Deputy Editor-in-Chief of BJOG added:
"It is crucial that women are aware of the benefits of healthy eating and weight control prior to pregnancy as this may reduce the risk of them developing diabetes in pregnancy. Avoiding being overweight prior to pregnancy is particularly important for older women of South Asian and Black African racial origin."
Naomi Watson | EurekAlert!
Smart Data Transformation – Surfing the Big Wave
02.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Informationstechnik FIT
Climate change could outpace EPA Lake Champlain protections
18.11.2016 | University of Vermont
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering
02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy