Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

ADHD, substance abuse and conduct disorder develop from the same neurocognitive deficits

13.08.2014

Study suggests ways to treat these deficits before the psychiatric symptoms develop

Researchers at the University of Montreal and CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre have traced the origins of ADHD, substance abuse and conduct disorder, and found that they develop from the same neurocognitive deficits, which in turn explains why they often occur together.

"Psychopathology exists on multiple continua of brain function. Some of these dimensions contribute to a multitude of problems, others contribute to specific problems. Together, they explain patterns of comorbidity such as why ADHD and conduct problems co-occur with substance misuse at such a high rate," explained the study's lead author, Professor Patricia Conrod. "Our findings suggest that risk for externalizing problems exist on a continuum in the general population, are easily measured and can be targeted before diagnosable problems arise.

The findings also help reduce stigma and address some of the complexities when diagnosing and treating concurrent psychiatric problems. The implications are that clinicians can manage multiple psychiatric problems by focusing on how a young person is functioning on a fewkey neurocognitive dimensions. The next step is to develop evidence-based intervention strategies that will target these three areas of brain function"

The findings were established by studying the reward sensitivity and decision making patterns of 1,778 European 14-year-olds of comparable demographic profile. The teens were asked to undertake several tasks while undergoing an MRI and answer personality questionnaires.

Clinicians also profiled the participants, once at the time of the testing, and again two years later.. At age 14, 4.4% of participants were identified as having a diagnosis of conduct disorder, ADHD, or both; by 16, this figure had risen to 6.6%. Alcohol and substance abuse were also identified, with 3.7% and 10.6% prevalence respectively at age 14, and 18.0% and 27.1% respectively at age 16.

The researchers were able to use statistical modelling to see what risk factors were linked to which psychiatric symptoms. "This is the first study to model ADHD, conduct disorder and substance use problems in adolescence by using a novel statistical approach that identifies the shared variance among these problems as well as the neurocognitive risk factors that are common across these problems. Three key neurocognitive dimensions were identified as being implicated is most externalizing problems: impulsive action, impulsive choice (valuing immediate rewards over delayed rewards) and reward sensitivity.

A young person's performance and brain function on each of these dimensions were shown to be related to externalizing problems. Self report impulsivity, impulsive actions on a response inhibition task and the extent to which frontal brain regions are hypoactive when committing an impulsive action differentiated youth who were most at risk for ADHD and conduct problems from youth who are at risk for all externalizing behaviours more generally.

Thrill or sensation seeking and abnormal activity in frontal brain regions when anticipating rewards differentiated youth who were uniquely at risk for alcohol misuse relative to those at risk for problems generally." explained Natalie Castellanos-Ryan, first author of the study.

"There has recently been a trend in psychiatry to reformulate diagnostic categories from a dimensional and neuroscience perspective, fueled mainly by the high rates of comorbidity between certain disorders. This is precisely what we do with regards to externalizing disorders/problems. Our findings provide support for this new "dimensional" approach to psychiatric research by showing these disorder/problems share substantial variance as well as common risk factors and that they exist along a continuum in the general population."

The findings shed light on the cognitive deficits that could be targeted in order to potentially help treat comorbid cases (e.g. adolescents who have been diagnosed with both conduct disorder and substance use problems). "Comorbid cases are harder to treat and have worse prognosis than non-comorbid cases, and currently there are very few interventions or clinical strategies that are designed to treat comorbidity," Castellanos-Ryan said.

"Prevention and intervention approaches for externalizing problems – ADHD, conduct disorder and substance use – could benefit from incorporating training components that target the brain functions or deficits related to impulsive action, impulsive choice, and reward sensitivity.

Furthermore, these findings suggest that new intervention and prevention strategies targeting these deficits, either at the personality, cognitive or neural level, have the potential to concurrently impact on a number of clinical outcomes during adolescence and potentially before problems occur."

About the Study

Natalie Castellanos-Ryan, PhD, and Professor Patricia Conrod, PhD, are researchers affiliated with the University of Montreal's Department of Psychiatry and the Research Centre at the CHU Sainte-Justine Mother and Child Hospital Centre. Castellanos-Ryan is also affiliated with the university's School of Psychoeducation. The research team published "Neural and Cognitive Correlates of the Common and Specific Variance Across Externalizing Problems in Young Adolescence" in the American Journal of Psychiatry on July 30, 2014. The research was supported by the European Union-funded FP6 Integrated Project IMAGEN (Reinforcement- Related Behaviour in Normal Brain Function and Psychopathology; LSHM-CT- 2007-037286), the FP7 project IMAGEMEND (Imaging Genetics for Mental Disorders) and the Innovative Medicine Initiative Project EU-AIMS (115300-2), the Medical Research Council Programme Grant "Developmental Pathways Into Adolescent Substance Abuse" (93558), and the Swedish funding agency FORMAS. Further support was provided by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF grants 01GS08152 and 01EV0711), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Reinhart-Koselleck Award (SP 383/5-1), and DFG grants SM80/5-2, SM 80/7-1, SFB 940/1. This research was also supported by the German Ministry of Education and Research (grant 01EV0711). Natalie Castellanos-Ryan's and Patricia Conrod's salaries are awarded from the Fonds de Recherche du Québec–Santé.

William Raillant-Clark | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
http://www.umontreal.ca

Further reports about: ADHD deficits dimensions disorder findings sensitivity strategies

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)

nachricht Reusable carbon nanotubes could be the water filter of the future, says RIT study
30.03.2017 | Rochester Institute of Technology

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>