The studies were led by Stewart H. Mostofsky, MD, with the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore and Donald L. Gilbert, MD, MS, with Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati.
For the first study, researchers examined mirror overflow movements in 25 boys and girls between the ages of eight and 13 with ADHD and 25 boys and girls without the disorder. Mirror movements are characterized by the inability to move one side of the body without moving the other. All children were right-handed. Using video and a device that recorded finger position, the researchers measured differences in how the children tapped their fingers.
The children with ADHD experienced more mirror movements than the children without ADHD. During left-handed finger tapping, children with ADHD showed more than twice as much mirror overflow than children without ADHD. The differences were particularly prominent for boys with ADHD, who showed nearly four times as much mirror overflow than boys without ADHD on one of the two measures used in the study.
In the second study, scientists applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the motor control area of the brain in 49 children with ADHD and 49 children without ADHD, all right-handed and ages 8 to 12. TMS technology allows scientists to activate brain cells with magnetic pulses in order to measure brain activity.
The study found that the brain’s short-interval cortical inhibition (SICI), which is an important “braking mechanism” in the brain, was reduced by 40 percent in children with ADHD compared to those without the disorder. On motor development tests, those with ADHD scored nearly 60 percent worse compared to those children without ADHD. Importantly, the scientists also found that the amount of reduced inhibition in the motor area of the brain was strongly associated with the severity of ADHD symptoms reported by the parents.
“These studies are an important step toward understanding how ADHD affects communication between the brain and other parts of the body,” said Jonathan W. Mink, MD, PhD, with the University of Rochester Medical Center in New York in an accompanying editorial. Mink is also an associate editor of Neurology. “These findings show that mirror movements are likely a marker of abnormal development of motor control that improves with age and is more prominent in boys. They also provide a more specific way to measure ADHD. The hope is that, ultimately, these studies and others will guide us toward development and testing of new therapies.”
The studies were supported by the National Institutes of Health.
The American Academy of Neurology, an association of more than 22,500 neurologists and neuroscience professionals, is dedicated to promoting the highest quality patient-centered neurologic care. A neurologist is a doctor with specialized training in diagnosing, treating and managing disorders of the brain and nervous system such as Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, migraine, multiple sclerosis, brain injury, Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy.
For more information about the American Academy of Neurology, visit http://www.aan.com.VIDEO: http://www.youtube.com/AANChannel
Rachel L. Seroka | American Academy of Neurology
Smart Data Transformation – Surfing the Big Wave
02.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Informationstechnik FIT
Climate change could outpace EPA Lake Champlain protections
18.11.2016 | University of Vermont
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
07.12.2016 | Earth Sciences
07.12.2016 | Earth Sciences
07.12.2016 | Materials Sciences