The studies were led by Stewart H. Mostofsky, MD, with the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore and Donald L. Gilbert, MD, MS, with Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati.
For the first study, researchers examined mirror overflow movements in 25 boys and girls between the ages of eight and 13 with ADHD and 25 boys and girls without the disorder. Mirror movements are characterized by the inability to move one side of the body without moving the other. All children were right-handed. Using video and a device that recorded finger position, the researchers measured differences in how the children tapped their fingers.
The children with ADHD experienced more mirror movements than the children without ADHD. During left-handed finger tapping, children with ADHD showed more than twice as much mirror overflow than children without ADHD. The differences were particularly prominent for boys with ADHD, who showed nearly four times as much mirror overflow than boys without ADHD on one of the two measures used in the study.
In the second study, scientists applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the motor control area of the brain in 49 children with ADHD and 49 children without ADHD, all right-handed and ages 8 to 12. TMS technology allows scientists to activate brain cells with magnetic pulses in order to measure brain activity.
The study found that the brain’s short-interval cortical inhibition (SICI), which is an important “braking mechanism” in the brain, was reduced by 40 percent in children with ADHD compared to those without the disorder. On motor development tests, those with ADHD scored nearly 60 percent worse compared to those children without ADHD. Importantly, the scientists also found that the amount of reduced inhibition in the motor area of the brain was strongly associated with the severity of ADHD symptoms reported by the parents.
“These studies are an important step toward understanding how ADHD affects communication between the brain and other parts of the body,” said Jonathan W. Mink, MD, PhD, with the University of Rochester Medical Center in New York in an accompanying editorial. Mink is also an associate editor of Neurology. “These findings show that mirror movements are likely a marker of abnormal development of motor control that improves with age and is more prominent in boys. They also provide a more specific way to measure ADHD. The hope is that, ultimately, these studies and others will guide us toward development and testing of new therapies.”
The studies were supported by the National Institutes of Health.
The American Academy of Neurology, an association of more than 22,500 neurologists and neuroscience professionals, is dedicated to promoting the highest quality patient-centered neurologic care. A neurologist is a doctor with specialized training in diagnosing, treating and managing disorders of the brain and nervous system such as Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, migraine, multiple sclerosis, brain injury, Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy.
For more information about the American Academy of Neurology, visit http://www.aan.com.VIDEO: http://www.youtube.com/AANChannel
Rachel L. Seroka | American Academy of Neurology
Amputees can learn to control a robotic arm with their minds
28.11.2017 | University of Chicago Medical Center
The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change
17.11.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig
DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors.
Researchers have created chemical amplifiers and a chemical oscillator using a systematic method that has the potential to embed sophisticated circuit...
MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.
Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...
Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...
Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.
To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.
Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...
11.12.2017 | Event News
08.12.2017 | Event News
07.12.2017 | Event News
15.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
15.12.2017 | Materials Sciences
15.12.2017 | Life Sciences