Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

2-day results predict ultimate response to therapy in chronic hepatitis C

24.03.2009
A new study suggests that previously noted low rates of successful hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy in African Americans are in large part due to very early differences in the antiviral activity induced by interferon. The study is published in the April 15 issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases, now available online.

More than 3 million Americans are infected with HCV, and in some countries more than 10 percent of the population is infected. Chronic HCV infection is the leading cause of liver failure worldwide. Response to standard therapy with peginterferon and ribavirin varies widely. Those infected with one strain of the virus—genotype 1—are the least likely to have a successful response to therapy, known as a sustained virological response (SVR). About one-half of patients infected with genotype 1 do not achieve SVR.

Studies have shown that African Americans have consistently lower rates of SVR to interferon-based therapy, compared to Caucasian Americans. A recent study of those with chronic genotype 1 HCV infection found that only 28 percent of African American patients attained SVR, compared with 52 percent in Caucasian Americans. This new study shows that the variation in therapy responsiveness between African Americans and Caucasian Americans can be partly explained by differences in viral response noted as early as one to two days after the first dose of peginterferon.

The study, conducted by a collaborative group of eight medical centers throughout the United States, monitored 341 patients with chronic HCV, genotype 1, who underwent therapy with peginterferon and ribavirin for at least 24 weeks. It focused on response rates to interferon therapy within the first 28 days of therapy, noting viral factors such as HCV RNA levels and host factors such as race, gender, and weight.

Results showed that HCV RNA levels decreased in almost all patients, and that the degree and pattern of decrease, as expected, was different between African and Caucasian Americans. Most important was the new finding that these differences were statistically significant by day 2 of treatment, and that this early viral kinetic measurement was a reliable predictor of ultimate SVR rates. After 28 days of treatment, 22 percent of Caucasian Americans, but only 12 percent of African Americans, were HCV RNA negative.

These findings are particularly important because they point toward the presence of some block or defect in the immediate antiviral response of those who do not respond to therapy. As the authors summarize, "The underlying cause of virological non-response and the reasons why it is more common among African Americans than Caucasian Americans are not clear. [But] the current analyses demonstrated that these differences are fundamentally biologic and become apparent within 24 to 48 hours of starting therapy." As a next step, future research should focus on these host biologic factors that are induced by interferon in an attempt to improve therapy response rates.

In an accompanying editorial, Andrew W. Tai, MD, PhD, and Raymond T. Chung, MD, of Massachusetts General Hospital agree that the findings will prove vital for future research into HCV, remarking, "[this study] demonstrates that the low rates of SVR in African American patients in response to IFN-based therapy appear to result, in large part, from impaired early viral kinetics. Further studies are necessary to uncover the relevant mechanisms that underlie this defect in IFN signaling… with the hope that such mechanisms can be manipulated to restore interferon responsiveness in the otherwise nonresponsive host."

Founded in 1904, The Journal of Infectious Diseases is the premier publication in the Western Hemisphere for original research on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases; on the microbes that cause them; and on disorders of host immune mechanisms. Articles in JID include research results from microbiology, immunology, epidemiology, and related disciplines. JID is published under the auspices of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Based in Arlington, Va., IDSA is a professional society representing more than 8,600 physicians and scientists who specialize in infectious diseases.

Steve Baragona | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.idsociety.org

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Real-time feedback helps save energy and water
08.02.2017 | Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

nachricht The Great Unknown: Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents
19.01.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Biocompatible 3-D tracking system has potential to improve robot-assisted surgery

17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering

Real-time MRI analysis powered by supercomputers

17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering

Antibiotic effective against drug-resistant bacteria in pediatric skin infections

17.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>