Farming and plant protection are segments of agriculture and forestry an independent area.
Agriculture involves all issues related to the production of food for humans and animals. Farming is the segment of agriculture that cultivates and farms fields to produce renewable raw materials. In addition to the targeted cultivation of crops, farming also involves maintenance and plant protection. Farming requires taking into account a wide variety of factors, such as managing fields with some degree of crop rotation. That means no field is cultivated with the same crop two years in a row. As a result, a variety of minerals are used, giving the soil time to regenerate. Plant protection is necessary in the farming industry in order to keep crops from withering and to protect them from pests and vermin. Shortly after the harvest, the soil is prepared for the next season. Farming, including plant protection, is often mentioned in the same breath as forestry, although this is inaccurate since forestry is an independent field.
The term "plant protection" was used within the farming industry as early as 1890. Plant protection is described as all measures aimed at preventing the damage and diminishment of agricultural crop output. The German requirements relating to plant protection for the farming industry are outlined in the plant protection law . Plant protection may be carried out only by those with the proper training and those who adhere to the basic principles of integrated plant protection and protection of the ground water. Plant protection is one of the core elements of farming because it ensures a high-quality yield and healthy human nutrition. A special form of plant protection entails measures to combat birds that cause crop damage. Species that pose a threat to farming include blackbirds and starlings. This type of plant protection utilizes optical or acoustic measures to drive the birds off. The farming industry receives assistance with plant protection issues through special information sources and also via financial help. Without plant protection, the farming industry would be less productive.Demarcation line between forestry and farming
Both forestry and farming involve the cultivation of renewable raw materials. The difference is that forestry is not focused on the financial aspect. Instead, the primary aim is the preservation and protection of the forests. Trees are thinned out when they are too close to other trees, when they die or if room for new plants must be made. Although forestry certainly has one eye on profits, the well-being of the forest is always the main objective. The importance of forestry and wood products is universally underestimated. Thanks to the forestry industry, we enjoy wood furniture, books and firewood. Forestry is a vital part of our lives, even if we don't actively participate. Forestry involves methodical work to keep forests alive. In Germany, there are three different forms of ownership: government, community and private. Despite the different forms, they all have to be managed with the principles of forestry in mind. Each German Bundesland (state) has enacted a state forestry law. The chief foresters are responsible for monitoring the implementation of the law. With the most forest acreage in Germany, Bavaria boasts the country's largest forestry operations.
The farming and plant protection industries contribute to a high quality of life and low product prices by maintaining the highest possible crop yield per field. While forestry places a high value on sustainability like farming and plant protection, the primary aim is still ensuring the health of the forests.
This special field deals with the primary production of human and animal foodstuffs as well as renewable raw materials. Also addressed are issues related to habitats for flora and fauna, recreation or landscape and common use.
Among other subjects, reports are available on topics such as crop and plant management, ecological farming, horticulture, viticulture, forest management and agriculture.
Scientists have conducted the first worldwide study of biodiversity and its impact on the productivity of forests. Data from more than 770,000 observation points from 44 countries were evaluated for this purpose. The samples included in the study comprised 8,700 species of trees from mangroves to trees in tropical rainforests, Central Europe, tundras, and dry savannas to populations in Mediterranean forests. The authors conclude that a decline in the number of species leads to massive cuts in the productivity of forests, whereas monocultures converted into mixed stands can yield significantly higher levels of timber growth.
The highest levels of biodiversity in the world are found in forests, but deforestation, forest degradation, and climate change are having a serious impact on...14.10.2016 | Read more
In the race to feed a growing population, it is important to consider sustainability. University of Illinois researchers are promoting the practice of agroforestry—the intentional planting of trees and shrubs with crops or livestock—to achieve sustainability goals. A number of practical and policy challenges have prevented adoption of agroforestry practices on a large scale in the U.S. If adopted more widely, agroforestry could benefit wildlife, soil and water quality, and the global climate.
Feeding the world’s burgeoning population is a major challenge for agricultural scientists and agribusinesses, who are busy developing higher-yielding crop...23.09.2016 | Read more
Putting a halt to the profound changes affecting agricultural landscapes: With this goal in mind, scientists, farmers and official representatives teamed up to look into ecological intensification as a potential solution.
Agricultural landscapes in Germany have lost much of their diversity being dominated by crops such as maize and rapeseed today. This trend has also had an...09.09.2016 | Read more
After years of environmental destruction, China has spent billions of dollars on the world's largest reforestation program, converting a combined area nearly the size of New York and Pennsylvania back to forest.
The government-backed effort, known as the Grain-for-Green Program, has transformed 28 million hectares (69.2 million acres) of cropland and barren scrubland...08.09.2016 | Read more
Tropical rainforests are richer in species than any other area on earth. In spite of this diversity, there are large areas in which one species of tree dominates. Scientists have now developed a computer model to explain this phenomenon, which is called “Monodominance“: One species of tree can naturally dominate a forest over centuries, if it invests more in the weight of its seeds than the competition and if these seeds are also dispersed across a shorter distance, write scientists from the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) and the University of Oldenburg, in the Royal Society journal Interface.
In ecology, monodominance is identified as a condition in which at least 60%, or often even 90% of trees in a natural forest belong to the same tree species....06.09.2016 | Read more
Global warming could create substantial economic damage in agriculture, a new study conducted by a team of scientists of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) finds. Around the globe, climate change threatens agricultural productivity, forcing up food prices. While financial gains and losses differ between consumers and producers across the regions, bottom line is that consumers in general will likely have to pay more for the same basket of food. As the additional expenditure for consumers outweighs producers’ gains, increasing net economic losses will occur in the agriculture and food sector towards the end of the century.
However, economic losses could be limited to 0.3 percent of global GDP – depending on agricultural trade policies.25.08.2016 | Read more
An international research team found new targets to strenghten cell walls against the powdery mildew pathogen in barley
An international research team with participation of the Leibniz-Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK)/ Germany and the University of...19.08.2016 | Read more
The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP in conjunction with project partners including Nordkorn Saaten GmbH from Güstrow in the German state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, has developed a high production-capacity, compact, and scalable unit for non-chemical dressing of seed product. The new design will be debuted at the 26th MELA tradeshow for the agriculture, nutrition, aquaculture, forestry, hunting, and landscape architecture industries in Mühlengeez near Rostock in northern Germany, September 15-18, 2016 in Hall 2 at booth 249.
Providing the expanding population with healthy foodstuffs is an enormous challenge whose solution begins very early in the production chain. Besides familiar...16.08.2016 | Read more
Later planting dates, flurprimidol soak optimize plant appearance, marketability
In order to introduce new flowering plants to market, breeders and growers need proven strategies for producing healthy, compact plants during times of highest...29.07.2016 | Read more
Perennial ryegrass reestablished in 6 weeks after diesel, hydraulic fluid spills
Petroleum-based spills on turfgrass can occur during lawn care and maintenance, primarily as a result of equipment failure or improper refueling. When these...29.07.2016 | Read more
What enables electrons to be transferred swiftly, for example during photosynthesis? An interdisciplinary team of researchers has worked out the details of how...
For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics.
Electrical charge is one of the key properties that allows molecules to interact. Life itself depends on this phenomenon: many biological processes involve...
At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. Among other things, researchers at the booth shared with the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Production (AZL) will demonstrate how lasers can be used for joining, structuring, cutting and drilling composite materials.
No other industry has attracted as much public attention to composite materials as the automotive industry, which along with the aerospace industry is a driver...
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Tohoku University have developed high-quality GFO epitaxial films and systematically investigated their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. They also demonstrated the room-temperature magnetocapacitance effects of these GFO thin films.
Multiferroic materials show magnetically driven ferroelectricity. They are attracting increasing attention because of their fascinating properties such as...
The oceans are the largest global heat reservoir. As a result of man-made global warming, the temperature in the global climate system increases; around 90% of...
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