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Agriculture and forestry

Farming and plant protection are segments of agriculture and forestry an independent area.

Farming - a segment of agriculture

Agriculture involves all issues related to the production of food for humans and animals. Farming is the segment of agriculture that cultivates and farms fields to produce renewable raw materials. In addition to the targeted cultivation of crops, farming also involves maintenance and plant protection. Farming requires taking into account a wide variety of factors, such as managing fields with some degree of crop rotation. That means no field is cultivated with the same crop two years in a row. As a result, a variety of minerals are used, giving the soil time to regenerate. Plant protection is necessary in the farming industry in order to keep crops from withering and to protect them from pests and vermin. Shortly after the harvest, the soil is prepared for the next season. Farming, including plant protection, is often mentioned in the same breath as forestry, although this is inaccurate since forestry is an independent field.

Plant protection as an important element of farming

The term "plant protection" was used within the farming industry as early as 1890. Plant protection is described as all measures aimed at preventing the damage and diminishment of agricultural crop output. The German requirements relating to plant protection for the farming industry are outlined in the plant protection law . Plant protection may be carried out only by those with the proper training and those who adhere to the basic principles of integrated plant protection and protection of the ground water. Plant protection is one of the core elements of farming because it ensures a high-quality yield and healthy human nutrition. A special form of plant protection entails measures to combat birds that cause crop damage. Species that pose a threat to farming include blackbirds and starlings. This type of plant protection utilizes optical or acoustic measures to drive the birds off. The farming industry receives assistance with plant protection issues through special information sources and also via financial help. Without plant protection, the farming industry would be less productive.

Demarcation line between forestry and farming

Both forestry and farming involve the cultivation of renewable raw materials. The difference is that forestry is not focused on the financial aspect. Instead, the primary aim is the preservation and protection of the forests. Trees are thinned out when they are too close to other trees, when they die or if room for new plants must be made. Although forestry certainly has one eye on profits, the well-being of the forest is always the main objective. The importance of forestry and wood products is universally underestimated. Thanks to the forestry industry, we enjoy wood furniture, books and firewood. Forestry is a vital part of our lives, even if we don't actively participate. Forestry involves methodical work to keep forests alive. In Germany, there are three different forms of ownership: government, community and private. Despite the different forms, they all have to be managed with the principles of forestry in mind. Each German Bundesland (state) has enacted a state forestry law. The chief foresters are responsible for monitoring the implementation of the law. With the most forest acreage in Germany, Bavaria boasts the country's largest forestry operations.


The farming and plant protection industries contribute to a high quality of life and low product prices by maintaining the highest possible crop yield per field. While forestry places a high value on sustainability like farming and plant protection, the primary aim is still ensuring the health of the forests.

Agricultural and Forestry Science

This special field deals with the primary production of human and animal foodstuffs as well as renewable raw materials. Also addressed are issues related to habitats for flora and fauna, recreation or landscape and common use.

Among other subjects, reports are available on topics such as crop and plant management, ecological farming, horticulture, viticulture, forest management and agriculture.

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Cornell researchers turn conventional thinking about canned corn on its ear

Canned corn may be healthier for you than corn on the cob, according to a study by Cornell University scientists. The researchers say that heat processing of sweet corn significantly raises the level of naturally occurring compounds that help fight disease. The findings are reported in the August 14 issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, a peer-reviewed publication of the American Chemical Society, the world’s largest scientific society. Sweet corn is the number- 08.08.2002 | nachricht Read more

Late blight-resistant potato to help Russian farmers

Cornell University potato breeders are donating a disease-resistant potato to Russia in an effort to help combat aggressive strains of potato late blight that are threatening to devastate the nation’s essential small farms. The Cornell-developed New York 121 potato, which also is able to fend off golden nematodes, scab and potato virus Y (PVY), will be given to Dokagene Technologies, a company specializing in producing pathogen-free seed in Russia, in a meeting and a field trip in Mosc 07.08.2002 | nachricht Read more

Beans and fungus may improve corn crop without expensive fertilizer

Corn, the preferred staple crop in many countries, requires large amounts of nitrogen for its growth. Usually fertilizer is necessary to sustain good yields. A Penn State graduate student, Ylva Besmer, is trying to find ways to improve corn yield for subsistence farmers in Zimbabwe without fertilizer. "The government of Zimbabwe no longer provides a subsidy for fertilizer, resulting in significantly lower corn yields" says Besmer, a doctoral candidate in ecology. "The old-fashion use of legu 07.08.2002 | nachricht Read more

Karnal bunt struggles to spread without large numbers

Luckily for us, the economically devastating Karnal bunt fungus needs personal ads and singles bars more than we do. Airborne spores from the fungus, which damages wheat crops, are limited in how well they can start new infections over long distances, according to the findings from a Kansas State University project. A phenomenon known as the Allee effect occurs when a small population of a species spread over a large area has little success in reproduction. The reason is that when 05.08.2002 | nachricht Read more

Researchers arming farms to halt increases in greenhouse gases

New farm practices and new breeds of crops might someday add to mankind’s toolbox for controlling greenhouse gases that contribute to global climate change. Research under way at Purdue University seeks to control the most prominent of these greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, by corralling carbon on the farm in a process known as carbon sequestration. The research is being supported with a grant of nearly $1 million to Purdue from the Consortium for Agricultural Soil Mitigation 03.07.2002 | nachricht Read more

New witchweed-fighting method, presented by CIMMYT and Weizmann Institute scientist

Technique could dramatically diminish hunger in Africa Corn harvests on experimental plots and in farmers’ fields in four East and Southern African countries have yielded striking results in long-term trials of an innovative witchweed-fighting technology developed by a Weizmann Institute scientist in collaboration with researchers at CIMMYT (the Spanish acronym for the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center). The new technology will be presented to seed producers, governmen 02.07.2002 | nachricht Read more

Efficient plastic nuggets key to agricultural plastic waste disposal

A process that would be a plastics recycler’s nightmare may help farmers deal with the disposal of agricultural and domestic plastics by creating burnable, energy-efficient plastic nuggets, according to a Penn State agricultural engineer. "In plastics recycling there are two unbreakable rules," says James W. Garthe, instructor in agricultural engineering and cooperative extension specialist. "You cannot mix types of plastic, and the plastics must be clean. This process does both since 01.07.2002 | nachricht Read more

A Yeast Useful For Pollutant Removal Processes

Sugar refineries and distilleries produce effluent which is harmful for the environment. The sugar industry produces two tonnes of sugar cane bagasse (a straw-like material) for every tonne of refined sugar. For Cuba this translates into 10 to 20 million tonnes of bagasse per year. Distilleries, often associated with sugar cane production, emit copious amounts of polluting volatile components (especially volatile organic compounds, VOCs). In Cuba, an estimated annual 1 600 tonnes of ethanol 28.06.2002 | nachricht Read more

Sweet Citrus Varieties with Deep Orange Rind Released by UC Riverside

Three new varieties of tangerines - the TDE2, TDE3, and TDE4 - are the University of California’s most recent citrus varieties to be released for commercial production. The tangerines, which are complex hybrids, are siblings since they share the same parents. The varieties will be patented and eventually be given trademarked names. The three tangerines are large fruited compared to other varieties, have a sweet taste, and bear fruit with a deep orange rind. "While the new tangerines share 21.06.2002 | nachricht Read more

Improving water use in growing corn possible, study shows

Farmers growing corn in the mid-Atlantic region will have a new tool to help them identify appropriate cultural practices for the types of soils in their fields, thanks to research conducted by researchers from Virginia Tech and Colorado State University. "Soils vary in their ability to hold water," said Mark Alley, professor of crop and soil environmental sciences at Virginia Tech. "If a farmer knows the water-use efficiency of the soils in his field, he has a very important clue on how to mana 17.06.2002 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Researchers at Fraunhofer monitor re-entry of Chinese space station Tiangong-1

In just a few weeks from now, the Chinese space station Tiangong-1 will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere where it will to a large extent burn up. It is possible that some debris will reach the Earth's surface. Tiangong-1 is orbiting the Earth uncontrolled at a speed of approx. 29,000 km/h.Currently the prognosis relating to the time of impact currently lies within a window of several days. The scientists at Fraunhofer FHR have already been monitoring Tiangong-1 for a number of weeks with their TIRA system, one of the most powerful space observation radars in the world, with a view to supporting the German Space Situational Awareness Center and the ESA with their re-entry forecasts.

Following the loss of radio contact with Tiangong-1 in 2016 and due to the low orbital height, it is now inevitable that the Chinese space station will...

Im Focus: Alliance „OLED Licht Forum“ – Key partner for OLED lighting solutions

Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, provider of research and development services for OLED lighting solutions, announces the founding of the “OLED Licht Forum” and presents latest OLED design and lighting solutions during light+building, from March 18th – 23rd, 2018 in Frankfurt a.M./Germany, at booth no. F91 in Hall 4.0.

They are united in their passion for OLED (organic light emitting diodes) lighting with all of its unique facets and application possibilities. Thus experts in...

Im Focus: Mars' oceans formed early, possibly aided by massive volcanic eruptions

Oceans formed before Tharsis and evolved together, shaping climate history of Mars

A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...

Im Focus: Tiny implants for cells are functional in vivo

For the first time, an interdisciplinary team from the University of Basel has succeeded in integrating artificial organelles into the cells of live zebrafish embryos. This innovative approach using artificial organelles as cellular implants offers new potential in treating a range of diseases, as the authors report in an article published in Nature Communications.

In the cells of higher organisms, organelles such as the nucleus or mitochondria perform a range of complex functions necessary for life. In the networks of...

Im Focus: Locomotion control with photopigments

Researchers from Göttingen University discover additional function of opsins

Animal photoreceptors capture light with photopigments. Researchers from the University of Göttingen have now discovered that these photopigments fulfill an...

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