Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Breakthrough: With a Chaperone, Copper Breaks Through

19.10.2010
TAU identifies features of copper transfer that may improve chemotherapy treatments

Information on proteins is critical for understanding how cells function in health and disease. But while regular proteins are easy to extract and study, it is far more difficult to gather information about membrane proteins, which are responsible for exchanging elements essential to our health, like copper, between a cell and its surrounding tissues.

Now Prof. Nir Ben-Tal and his graduate students Maya Schushan and Yariv Barkan of Tel Aviv University's Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology have investigated how a type of membrane protein transfers essential copper ions throughout the body. This mechanism, Schushan says, could also be responsible for how the body absorbs Cisplatin, a common chemotherapy drug used to fight cancer. In the future, this new knowledge may allow scientists to improve the way the drug is transferred throughout the body, she continues.

Their breakthrough discovery was detailed in a recent issue of PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences).

Cellular gatekeepers and chaperones

Most proteins are water soluble, which allows for easy treatment and study. But membrane proteins reside in the greasy membrane that surrounds a cell. If researchers attempt to study them with normal technology of solubilization in water, they are destroyed — and can't be studied.

Copper, which is absorbed into the body through a membrane protein, is necessary to the healthy functioning of the human body. A deficiency can give rise to disease, while loss of regulation is toxic. Therefore, the cell handles copper ions with special care. One chaperone molecule delivers the copper ion to an "entrance gate" outside the cell; another chaperone then picks it up and carries it to various destinations inside the cell.

The researchers suggest that this delicate system is maintained by passing one copper ion at a time by the copper transporter, allowing for maximum control of the copper ions. "This way, there is no risk of bringing several copper ions into the protein at the same time, which ultimately prevents harmful chemical reactions between the ions and the abundant chemical reagents within the cell," explains Prof. Ben-Tal. Once the ion has passed through the transporter into the cell, the transporter is ready to receive another copper ion if necessary.

Improving cancer drugs — and more

The mechanism which transfers copper throughout the body may also be responsible for the transfer of the common chemotherapy drug Cisplatin. By studying how copper is transferred throughout the body, researchers may also gain a better understanding of how this medication and others are transferred into the cell.

With this information, says Prof. Ben-Tal, scientists could improve the transfer of the drug throughout the body, or develop a more effective chemotherapy drug. And that's not the only pharmaceutical dependent on the functioning of membrane proteins. "Sixty percent of drugs target membrane proteins," he explains, "so it's critical to learn how they function."

This work was done in collaboration with Prof. Turkan Haliloglu from Bogazici University, Istanbul.

George Hunka | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.aftau.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=13141

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Custom-tailored strategy against glioblastomas
26.09.2016 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht New leukemia treatment offers hope
23.09.2016 | King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: OLED microdisplays in data glasses for improved human-machine interaction

The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.

“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...

Im Focus: Artificial Intelligence Helps in the Discovery of New Materials

With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...

Im Focus: Complex hardmetal tools out of the 3D printer

For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.

Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...

Im Focus: Launch of New Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing

At AKL’16, the International Laser Technology Congress held in May this year, interest in the topic of process control was greater than expected. Appropriately, the event was also used to launch the Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing. The group provides a forum for representatives from industry and research to initiate pre-competitive projects and discuss issues such as standards, potential cost savings and feasibility.

In the age of industry 4.0, laser technology is firmly established within manufacturing. A wide variety of laser techniques – from USP ablation and additive...

Im Focus: New laser joining technologies at ‘K 2016’ trade fair

Every three years, the plastics industry gathers at K, the international trade fair for plastics and rubber in Düsseldorf. The Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will also be attending again and presenting many innovative technologies, such as for joining plastics and metals using ultrashort pulse lasers. From October 19 to 26, you can find the Fraunhofer ILT at the joint Fraunhofer booth SC01 in Hall 7.

K is the world’s largest trade fair for the plastics and rubber industry. As in previous years, the organizers are expecting 3,000 exhibitors and more than...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Experts from industry and academia discuss the future mobile telecommunications standard 5G

23.09.2016 | Event News

ICPE in Graz for the seventh time

20.09.2016 | Event News

Using mathematical models to understand our brain

16.09.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

How to merge two black holes in a simple way

26.09.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Australian technology installed on world’s largest single-dish radio telescope

26.09.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

New mechanisms uncovered explaining frost tolerance in plants

26.09.2016 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>