Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

First biological marker for major depression could enable better diagnosis and treatment

18.02.2014
Teenage boys who show a combination of depressive symptoms and elevated levels of the 'stress hormone' cortisol are up to fourteen times more likely to develop major depression than those who show neither trait, according to research funded by the Wellcome Trust.

In a study published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers from the University of Cambridge have identified the first biomarker – a biological signpost – for major, or clinical, depression. They argue that this could help identify those boys in particular at greatest risk of developing the illness and provide treatment at an earlier stage.

Major, or clinical, depression is a debilitating mental health problem that will affect one in six people at some point in their lives. However, until now there have been no biomarkers for major depression; this is believed to be, in part, because both the causes and the symptoms can be so varied.

"Depression is a terrible illness that will affect as many as ten million people in the UK at some point in their lives," says Professor Ian Goodyer from the University of Cambridge, who led the study. "Through our research, we now have a very real way of identifying those teenage boys most likely to develop clinical depression. This will help us strategically target preventions and interventions at these individuals and hopefully help reduce their risk of serious episodes of depression and their consequences in adult life."

Dr Matthew Owens from the University of Cambridge, first author on the study, adds: "This new biomarker suggests that we may be able to offer a more personalised approach to tackling boys at risk for depression. This could be a much needed way of reducing the number of people suffering from depression, and in particular stemming a risk at a time when there has been an increasing rate of suicide amongst teenage boys and young men."

The researchers measured levels of cortisol in saliva from two separate large cohorts of teenagers. The first cohort consisted of 660 teenagers, who provided four early morning samples on schooldays within a week and then again twelve months later. The researchers were able to show within this cohort that cortisol levels were stable over one year in the population at large in both boys and girls.

A second cohort, consisting of 1,198 teenagers, provided early morning samples over three school days.

Using self-reports about current symptoms of depression collected longitudinally over the twelve months and combining these with the cortisol findings, Professor Goodyer and colleagues were able to divide the teenagers in the first cohort into four distinct sub-groups, ranging from those with normal levels of morning cortisol and low symptoms of depression over time (Group 1) through to those teenagers with elevated levels of morning cortisol and high symptoms of depression over time (Group 4) – this latter group made up one in six (17%) of all subjects. Importantly, the research group replicated exactly these sub groups using the second cohort.

Because the two cohorts gave identical results, Professor Goodyer and colleagues were able to combine them and study the whole sample of 1,858 teenagers for the probability of developing clinical major depression and other psychiatric disorders when followed up 12 to 36 months later.

The subjects in Group 4 were on average seven times more likely than those in Group 1, and two to three times more likely than in the other two groups, to develop clinical depression. Further analysis revealed that boys in Group 4 were fourteen times more likely to suffer from major depression than those in Group 1 and two to four times more likely to develop the condition than either of the other two groups. Girls in Group 4, on the other the other hand, were only four times more likely than those in Group 1 to develop major depression, but were no more likely to develop the condition than those with either elevated morning cortisol or symptoms of depression alone. The findings suggest gender differences in how depression develops.

In order to demonstrate that the combination of high levels of cortisol and depressive symptoms was indeed a biomarker for a particular type of depression, the researchers needed to show that the teenagers in Group 4 were different from those in the other groups. They demonstrated this using a memory test completed on the first cohort consisting of systematically recording episodes recollected from an individual's life (known as 'autobiographical memory') under standardized test conditions.

Both boys and girls in Group 4 were particularly poor at systematically recollecting specific autobiographical memories from over thirty example situations across different social and personal domains. For example, when given the word 'picnic', most teenagers give a fairly detailed account of a time when they went on a picnic and who they were with; in Group 4, individuals tended to give very little, and more general non specific, information. This supports evidence from the scientific literature that suggests that high cortisol acts to suppress autobiographical memory recall.

The researchers hope that having an easily measurable biomarker – in this case, elevated cortisol plus depressive symptoms – will enable primary care services to identify boys at high risk and consider new public mental health strategies for this subgroup in the community.

The research has been welcomed by the Wellcome Trust, which funded the study. Dr John Williams, Head of Neuroscience and Mental Health, says: "Progress in identifying biological markers for depression has been frustratingly slow, but now we finally have a biomarker for clinical depression. The approach taken by Professor Goodyer's team may yet yield further biomarkers. It also gives tantalising clues about the gender differences in the causes and onset of depression."

Meera Senthilingam | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wellcome.ac.uk

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht New leukemia treatment offers hope
23.09.2016 | King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

nachricht Alzheimer’s: Cellular Mechanism Provides Explanation Model for Declining Memory Performance
21.09.2016 | Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen e.V. (DZNE)

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: OLED microdisplays in data glasses for improved human-machine interaction

The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.

“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...

Im Focus: Artificial Intelligence Helps in the Discovery of New Materials

With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...

Im Focus: Complex hardmetal tools out of the 3D printer

For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.

Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...

Im Focus: Launch of New Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing

At AKL’16, the International Laser Technology Congress held in May this year, interest in the topic of process control was greater than expected. Appropriately, the event was also used to launch the Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing. The group provides a forum for representatives from industry and research to initiate pre-competitive projects and discuss issues such as standards, potential cost savings and feasibility.

In the age of industry 4.0, laser technology is firmly established within manufacturing. A wide variety of laser techniques – from USP ablation and additive...

Im Focus: New laser joining technologies at ‘K 2016’ trade fair

Every three years, the plastics industry gathers at K, the international trade fair for plastics and rubber in Düsseldorf. The Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will also be attending again and presenting many innovative technologies, such as for joining plastics and metals using ultrashort pulse lasers. From October 19 to 26, you can find the Fraunhofer ILT at the joint Fraunhofer booth SC01 in Hall 7.

K is the world’s largest trade fair for the plastics and rubber industry. As in previous years, the organizers are expecting 3,000 exhibitors and more than...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Experts from industry and academia discuss the future mobile telecommunications standard 5G

23.09.2016 | Event News

ICPE in Graz for the seventh time

20.09.2016 | Event News

Using mathematical models to understand our brain

16.09.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Chains of nanogold – forged with atomic precision

23.09.2016 | Life Sciences

New leukemia treatment offers hope

23.09.2016 | Health and Medicine

Self-assembled nanostructures hit their target

23.09.2016 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>