The novel bacteriophage could eventually open up new ways to detect, treat or decontaminate the anthrax bacillus and its relatives that cause food poisoning. The work is published Jan. 27 in the journal PLOS One.
This shows zebras graze in Etosha National Park, Namibia. Zebras can fall victim to anthrax. The new bacteriophage virus called Tsamsa, isolated from zebra carcasses in the park, kills the anthrax bacterium.
Credit: Holly Ganz, UC Davis.
The newly-isolated Tsamsa virus is a bacteriophage that infects and kills the anthrax bacterium and close relatives that cause food poisoning. It is one of the largest bacteriophages ever discovered.
Credit: Jochen Klumpp, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
The virus was isolated from samples collected from carcasses of zebras that died of anthrax in Etosha National Park, Namibia. The anthrax bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, forms spores that survive in soil for long periods. Zebras are infected when they pick up the spores while grazing; the bacteria multiply and when the animal dies, they form spores that return to the soil as the carcass decomposes.While anthrax is caused by a bacterium that invades and kills its animal host, bacteriophages, literally "bacteria eaters" are viruses that invade and kill bacterial hosts.
They also noticed that the new virus, named Bacillus phage Tsamsa, is unusually large, with a giant head, a long tail and a large genome, placing it among the largest known bacteriophages.
Tsamsa infects not only B. anthracis but also some closely related bacteria, including strains of Bacillus cereus, which can cause food poisoning. Sequencing the genome allowed researchers to identify the gene for lysin, an enzyme that the virus uses to kill bacterial cells, that has potential use as an antibiotic or disinfecting agent.
Bacteriophages are often highly specific to a particular strain of bacteria, and when they were first discovered in the early 20th century there was strong interest in them as antimicrobial agents. But the discovery of penicillin and other antibiotics eclipsed phage treatments in the West, although research continued in the Soviet Union.
"With growing concerns about antibiotic resistance and superbugs, people are coming back to look at phages," said Ganz said.
One advantage of bacteriophages is that because they tend to be very specific, they can potentially target only "bad" bacteria while leaving beneficial bacteria unharmed.
Ganz began the work as a postdoctoral scientist on a team led by Wayne Getz, Professor of Environmental Science, Policy and Management at UC Berkeley and at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Sequencing of the phage genome was conducted at UC Davis after Ganz joined the laboratory of Professor Jonathan Eisen.
Ganz said that she hoped the publication of the phage's sequence information would enable other researchers to investigate further and potentially develop applications for the phage and its proteins.
"You might use it to detect the anthrax Bacillus or B. cereus; use it as an alternative to antibiotics or as part of a decontaminant," she said.
Other authors on the study are: Wayne Getz, Christina Law and Richard Calendar, UC Berkeley; Martina Schmuki, Fritz Eichenseher, Martin Loessner and Jochen Klumpp at the Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Jonas Korlach, Pacific Biosciences, Menlo Park, Calif.; and Wolfgang Beyer, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany. The work was supported by the NIH.
Andy Fell | EurekAlert!
Researchers uncover protein-based “cancer signature”
05.12.2016 | Universität Basel
The Nagoya Protocol Creates Disadvantages for Many Countries when Applied to Microorganisms
05.12.2016 | Leibniz-Institut DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering
05.12.2016 | Materials Sciences
05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering