Bacteria are ubiquitous and some of them are real survival specialists – a property, which is particularly challenging for space missions. The spacecraft that are sent on their long journey into space should be as clean as possible and considerably reduced in microbial burden, since the risk of biological contamination of other planets is high.
Sample taking ESA's Herschel space observatory
Such a contamination could affect the detection of extraterrestrial life or make it even impossible. For this reason, spacecraft are assembled in so-called "clean rooms" under the most stringent controls for bio-contamination. Nevertheless, microorganisms exist that can deal with the prevailing extreme conditions such as dryness, lack of nutrients or presence of disinfectants. Space agencies have defined standards by which to measure the bioburden and diversity of microbial species in the clean rooms and on the spacecraft. The DSMZ now offers, in cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA), the first public collection of extremotolerant bacterial strains adapted to the harsh conditions within the clean rooms.This collection is an important resource for research institutes and industry to investigate adaptive mechanisms of bacteria (for instance, resistance to heat, UV radiation, ionizing radiation, desiccation, disinfectants). The journal "Astrobiology" reports about this culture collection in its current issue.
„A clean room is a particularly extreme habitat for microbial survivalists", explains Rüdiger Pukall. "The nutrient-poor environment, controlled moisture and temperature, air filtering and frequent decontamination of surfaces create a special habitat for spore-forming, autotrophic, multi-resistant, facultatively or obligate anaerobic bacteria."
Even taking a sample of the bacteria in the clean rooms is a special challenge for the researchers. "In order not to introduce any foreign microorganisms or particles, the microbiologists have to wear protective suits and face masks ", reports Rüdiger Pukall. “Here the samples were taken with special swabs and wipes, according to defined standard procedures from ESA. The samples were subsequently analysed at the University Regensburg and the DLR in Köln and the bacteria were isolated using diverse cultivation strategies."Then Dr. Rüdiger Pukall's team at DSMZ in Braunschweig identified the bacterial strains by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. For long term storage, the bacteria were freeze-dried and stored in liquid nitrogen. Bacteria that could not be cultivated were also identified via sequencing after extraction of the total genomic DNA from the samples.
Susanne Thiele | Leibniz-Institut DSMZ
The balancing act: An enzyme that links endocytosis to membrane recycling
07.12.2016 | National Centre for Biological Sciences
Transforming plant cells from generalists to specialists
07.12.2016 | Duke University
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine
07.12.2016 | Life Sciences
07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine