Jon Chamberlain, from Essex's School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, explains: ‘Human language is not an unconnected series of words, phrases and sentences but a series of people, objects and ideas that refer to each other in different ways.
The complexity of language makes it sound "natural" to a reader but it can be difficult to define the rules that allow us to understand it.
‘Consider the statement: "Mary is a teacher who is 25 years old. She lives in England." A human reader can easily ascertain facts about Mary's occupation, age and residence by, for example, knowing that the word "she" refers to the person "Mary". However, comprehending this type of language referencing is a challenge facing programmers when designing computer systems that try to understand text, such as search, translation and summarisation systems.’
This is where the work of those playing Phrase Detectives becomes important. The game, part of a larger project called AnaWiki, is an attempt to address the bottleneck in creating annotated linguistic resources. By initially investigating anaphoric references (as in the example above) the project aims to develop a resource larger than anything currently available.
Players (or detectives) register at: www.phrasedetecives.org and read through texts, making annotations to highlight relationships between words and phrases. They may be asked to 'name the culprit', so will be given a word or phrase and must look for it appearing earlier in the text. For example: 'Sherlink Holmes went to the shop. He got some tobacco for his pipe.' The word ‘he’ refers to 'Sherlink Holmes'.
Jon added: ‘Players of the game are helping to create a resource that is rich in linguistic information and improves future technology. This project aims to collect a significant amount of data and investigate the possibility of using mass collaboration to train computer systems.
‘The best way to understand a language is to have lots of examples where the meaning has been clarified. Unfortunately creating this type is resource is both time consuming and expensive but the new approach offered by Phrase Detective should address this resource shortage. The same methodology could also be used to create resources for machine translation, semantics and other linguistic phenomenon.’
So far, players have made over 40,000 annotations in four weeks. However, the researchers hope more will join as detectives and that people will add new text to the site for analysis.
Phrase Detectives can be defined as part of a genre of “games with a purpose” (GWAP) that collect data on images, texts and music. The crucial element of these games is that players receive points for agreeing with each other. They are motivated to collaborate with their partners in order to score maximum points. This ensures that players are attempting to provide good quality information, as this will result in the most agreement.
The Essex researchers believe Phrase Detectives is the first attempt to collect linguistic judgements using a fun, collaborative online game. They aim to make the tasks and the texts interesting so it feels more like a computer game than a linguistic task. The data collected can then be used to improve computer systems that try to understand text. For example, it could help search engines find information more relevant to your searches.
So, can networked human computation really solve complex language comprehension tasks on computers? Initial results from the beta version of the game look promising and more detailed analysis will completed in early 2009.
The Flexible Grid Involves its Users
27.09.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Informationstechnik FIT
Optical fiber transmits one terabit per second – Novel modulation approach
16.09.2016 | Technische Universität München
Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of light metals.
Scientists at the University of Stuttgart have now developed two new process variants that will considerably expand the areas of application for friction stir welding.
Technologie-Lizenz-Büro (TLB) GmbH supports the University of Stuttgart in patenting and marketing its innovations.
Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of...
Optical quantum computers can revolutionize computer technology. A team of researchers led by scientists from Münster University and KIT now succeeded in putting a quantum optical experimental set-up onto a chip. In doing so, they have met one of the requirements for making it possible to use photonic circuits for optical quantum computers.
Optical quantum computers are what people are pinning their hopes on for tomorrow’s computer technology – whether for tap-proof data encryption, ultrafast...
The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.
“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...
With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...
For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.
Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...
29.09.2016 | Event News
28.09.2016 | Event News
27.09.2016 | Event News
29.09.2016 | Materials Sciences
29.09.2016 | Materials Sciences
29.09.2016 | Interdisciplinary Research